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Presentation and Referencing

The essentials...

Presentation and accurate referencing is an essential part of the historian's craft. An essay that is well written and properly referenced will convey your message efficiently and be more persuasive. Many different formatting conventions are used in scholarly publications and this can be confusing. What we recommend is the best current practice. If you are unsure about any of these guidelines, please ask your essay tutors for clarification.

Why reference?

From reading academic articles and books, you should be familiar with the scholarly practice of making references in the text to other people's work and providing listings of relevant source material at the end of the text.

Why is this done?

  • To enable someone reading the document to find the material you have referred to or consulted

  • To demonstrate your width of reading and knowledge about a subject

  • To support and/or develop points made in the text

  • To avoid accusations of plagiarism: using somebody else's work without acknowledging the fact

  • Because you may be required to do so by your department

Academic Referencing

The History department recommends that students follow the MHRA standard for essay writing. MHRA is a footnote style commonly used in the Humanities. Superscript numbers are placed in the body of the text, and corresponding notes are placed at the end of each page to cite the resources used.