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Secondary Reading and Digital Resources


Filmed productions, TV/film adaptations

Audio recordings, radio productions


Greek Tragedy

Peter D. Arnott, Public and Performance in the Greek Theatre (Routledge, 1989)

P.E. Easterling, ed, Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Simon Goldhill, Reading Greek Tragedy (Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Deborah Kamen, Status in Classical Athens (Princeton UP, 2013)

Martha Nussbaum. The Fragility of Goodness (Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Rush Rehm, Understanding Greek Tragic Theatre (Routledge, 1992)

Oliver Taplin, Greek Tragedy in Action (Routledge, 1978)

David Wiles, Greek Theatre Performance: An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2000)


Simon Goldhill, Language, Sexuality, Narrative: The Oresteia (Cambridge University Press, 1984)


Sarah Nooter, When Heroes Sing: Sophocles and the Soundscape of Tragedy (CUP, 2012)

Rebecca Bushnell, Prophesying Tragedy: Sign and Voice in Sophocles' Theban Plays (Cornell University Press, 1988)

George Steiner, Antigones (Clarendon Press, 1984)

R Winnington-Ingram, Sophocles: An Interpretation (Cambridge University Press, 1980)


E.R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (California University Press, 1973)

Justina Gregory, Euripides and the Instruction of the Athenians (University of Michigan Press, 1991)

Lope de Vega and Calderón

Anthony Cascardi, The Limits of Illusion: Critical Studies of Calderón (Cambridge University Press, 1984)

D.R.Larson, The Honor Plays of Lope de Vega (1977)

Jonathan Thacker, Companion to Golden Age Theatre (Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2007)


Andrew Calder, Moliere, the Theory and Practice of Comedy (Athlone, 1993)


Hawcroft., Word as Action: Racine, Rhetoric, and Theatrical Language (Oxford University Press, 1992)

E.D. James and G. Jondorf, Racine, Phedre (Cambridge University Press, 1994)
Maskell, Racine: A Theatrical Reading (Oxford University Press, 1991)

Modern Drama

David Krasner, A History of Modern Drama vol 1 (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012)

David Krasner, A History of Modern Drama: 1960-2000 vol 2 (Wiley Blackwell, 2016)

Christopher Innes, F.J. Marker (eds.), Modernism in European Drama: Ibsen, Strindberg, Pirandello, Beckett: Essays from Modern Drama (University of Toronto Press, 2016)


James McFarlane (ed), The Cambridge companion to Ibsen (Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Sally Ledger, Henrik Ibsen (Northcote House Publishers, 2008)

Michael Egan (ed), Henrik Ibsen (Routledge and K. Paul, 1972)


Vera Gottlieb and Paul Allain (eds), The Cambridge companion to Chekhov (Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Sharon Marie Carnicke, Checking out Chekhov : A Guide to the Plays for Actors, Directors, and Readers (Academic Studies Press, 2013)

Christopher Innes, A sourcebook on naturalist theatre (Routledge, 2000) - great for Ibsen and Chekhov


Michael Robinson (ed), The Cambridge companion to August Strindberg (Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Michael Robinson, Studies in Strindberg (Norvik Press, 2013)

Egil Törnqvist and Birgitta Steene (eds), Strindberg on drama and theatre: a source book (Amsterdam University Press, 2007)

Sue Prideaux, Strindberg: a life (Yale University Press, 2012)


Edward Bond, (1980) [trans. & ed.] Spring Awakening, London: Methuen.

Steven Sater and Duncan Sheik, Spring awakening (Theatre Communications Group, 2007)

European Theatre student Daisy Ingrey's translation (pdf).

MLA citation:
Wedekind, Frank. Spring Awakening. Translated by Daisy Ingrey. 2021. PDF file.


Peter Thomson and Glendyr Sacks (eds), The Cambridge companion to Brecht (Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Stephen Unwin, A guide to the plays of Bertolt Brecht (Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2005)

Carol Martin and Henry Bial (eds), Brecht sourcebook (Routledge, 2000)


Maria M. Delgado, Federico García Lorca (Routledge, 2008)


Dirk Van Hulle (ed), The New Cambridge companion to Samuel Beckett (Cambridge University Press, 2015)

S.E. Gontarski (ed), On Beckett: essays and criticism (Anthem Press, 2012)

Andrew K. Kennedy, Samuel Beckett (Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Mark S. Byron (ed), Samuel Beckett's Endgame: Essays (Rodopi, 2007)


Elaine Aston and Elin Diamond (ed), The Cambridge companion to Caryl Churchill (Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Elaine Aston, Caryl Churchill (Northcote House, 2020)


Hannah Freed-Thall, Spoiled distinctions: aesthetics and the ordinary in French modernism (Oxford University Press, 2015)

Filmed productions, TV/film adaptations

The Oresteia, dir. Peter Hall, National Theatre, 1983:

Oedipus, dir. Steven Berkoff, Nottingham Playhouse, 2011:

Oedipus the King, dir. Don Taylor, BBC, 1986:

King Oedipus, dir. Alan Bridges, trans. E.F. Watling, BBC, 1972:

Oedipus the King, dir. Philip Savile, 1968:

Oedipus Rex, dir. Tyrone Guthrie, trans. W. B. Yeats, Stratford Shakespearean festival, 1957:

Antigone, dir. Ivo van Hove, trans. Anne Carson, Barbican Theatre, 2015 (starring Juliette Binoche):

Antigone, dir. Don Taylor, trans. Don Taylor, BBC, 1986 (starring Juliet Stevenson):

Antigone, dir. Gerald Freedman, version by Jean Anouilh, Broadway Theater Archive, 1974 (starring Genevieve Bujold):

Antigone, dir. Polly Findlay, trans. Don Taylor, National Theatre, 2012 (starring Jodie Whitaker):

Dionysus in 69 (The Bacchae), dir. Brian De Palma and Richard Schechner, The Performance Group, 1970:

The Bacchae (in Greek, no subtitles), dir. Aris Biniaris, Onassis Stegi Main Stage, 2018:

Frogs, dir. Kelsi Russell, Warwick Classics Society, 2019: and accompanying lecture by Prof. Michael Scott (University of Warwick):

Act 2, Scene 4 from The Spanish Tragedy, dir. James Wallace, Illuminations Media, 2015:

Lecture on The Spanish Tragedy by Prof. Emma Smith (University of Oxford):

Tartuffe, dir. Bill Alexander, Royal Shakespeare Company, 1983:

Phèdre, dir. Nicholas Hytner, National Theatre, 2009, starring Helen Mirren [paid only]:

Phèdre (in French), dir. Pierre Jourdan, 1968:

Hedda, dir. Don Boyd, Palimpsest, 2015 (immersive production):

Hedda Gabler, dir. Deborah Warner, BBC, 1993 (based on the 1991 Abbey Theatre, Dublin production, starring Fiona Shaw): and

Hedda Gabler, dir. David Cunliffe, 1981 (starring Diana Rigg):

Hedda Gabler, dir. Waris Hussein, 1974 (starring Janet Suzman):

Hedda Gabler, dir. Alex Segal, 1962 (starring Ingrid Bergman):

The Seagull (in Russian, with English subtitles), dir. Yury Butusov, Stage Russia, 2019:

The Seagull, dir. Michael Mayer, 2018 (starring Saoirse Ronan, Annette Bening, Elizabeth Moss): [NB this is not free to access]

The Seagull, dir. Michael Lindsay-Hogg, BBC, 1978 (starring Michael Gambon):

The Seagull, dir. Nikos Psacharopoulos, 1975 (starring Frank Langella, Blythe Danner):

Miss Julie, dir. Liv Ullmann, 2014 (starring Jessica Chastain and Colin Farrell): [NB this is not free to access]

Miss Julie, dir. Mike Figgis, 1999 (starring Saffron Burrows and Peter Mullan):

Miss Julie, dir. Michael Simpson, BBC, 1987 (starring Janet McTeer and Patrick Malahide): and

Miss Julie, dir. John Glenister & Robin Phillips, Royal Shakespeare Company, 1972 (starring Helen Mirren):

After Miss Julie, directed and written by Patrick Marber, BBC, 1995 (a reimagining of Miss Julie relocated to England in 1945 on the night of Churchill's election defeat):

South African Strindberg: Mies Julie at the Edinburgh festival, 2012 (short documentary about an adaptation shifting the action of the play to modern-day South Africa):

See Hear: Spring Awakening on Broadway, BBC, 2016 (documentary about an American Sign Language production of the musical adaptation):

Spring Awakening: various bootleg recordings of the musical adaptation are available on YouTube!

Bertolt Brecht’s Galileo, dir. Joseph Losey, The American Film Theater, 1975:

Yerma, directed and adapted by Simon Stone, Young Vic Theatre, 2017 (starring Billie Piper in an updated loose adaptation of Lorca’s play):

Endgame, dir. Conor McPherson, Beckett on Film, 2000 (starring David Thewlis and Michael Gambon):

Endgame, dir. Tony Coe, 1989 (starring Norman Beaton and Stephen Rea):

Audio recordings, radio productions

Oedipus the King, Drama on 3, BBC, 2019:

Oedipus the King, LA Theatre Works, 2003:

Antigone, LA Theatre Works, 2005:

Tartuffe, Drama on 3, BBC, 2016:

Tartuffe, LA Theatre Works, 2010: and

Hedda Gabler, BBC Radio 4, 2013, directed by Psyche Stott from the Old Vic production starring Sheridan Smith:

The Seagull, LA Theatre Works, 2012: and

The Seagull, Drama on 3, BBC, 2010:

The Seagull, BBC Radio 4, 1993:

Miss Julie, BBC Radio 4, 2017:

Yerma, Drama on 3, BBC, 2014:

The Skriker, Drama on 3, BBC, 2016:

Art, LA Theatre Works, 2009: and