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Seminar 9

Seminar Questions:

  • Account for the failure of the Whig party to establish itself as a party of government between 1780 and 1830.
  • Was there the development of a Tory party between 1806 and 1827?
  • Is it possible to talk of a Whig or Tory party ideology in this period?
  • How far does the theory of 'mutual deference' explain the relationship between patrons and voters in the unreformed electoral system.

Party Politics

See O’Gorman, The Long Eighteenth century, Holmes and Szechi, The Age of Oligarchy and Evans, The forging of the modern state

B Coleman, Conservatism and the Conservative party

K G Feilding, Second Tory Party, 1714-1832

A S Foord, His Majesty's Opposition 1714-1832

P Fraser, 'Party voting in the House of Commons, 1812-24', Eng. H. R. 1983

N Gash, Aristocracy and People

N Gash, The Conservatives

N Gash, Lord Liverpool

J A Gunn, 'Influence, parties and the Constitution 1783-1832', Hist. Journal, 1974

B Hill, British Parliamentary Parties 1742-1832

A D Kriegel, 'Liberty and Whiggery in early nineteenth century England', Journal of Mod. Hist. 1980

L Mitchell, Charles James Fox and the Disintegration of the Whig Party 1782-94

L Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III

F O'Gorman, Emergence of the British Two Party System

F O'Gorman, The Rise of Party in England

F O’Gorman, ‘Party in the late eighteenth century’ in J Cannon (ed.), The Whig Ascendancy

M Roberts, The Whig Party 1807-12

E A Smith, Whig Principles and Party Politics

Elections and voting behaviour, 1760-1832

J Bradley, ‘Nonconformity and the Electorate in Eighteenth century England’, Parliamentary History, 1987

P Corfield, E Green and C Harvey, ‘Westminster Man: C J Fox and his electorate, 1780-1806’, Parliamentary History, 2001

H A Ellis, 'Aristocratic Influence and Electoral Dependency', Journal of Mod. Hist. 1979

E G Forrester, Northamptonshire County Elections and Electioneering, 1695-1832

D E Ginter, Whig Organisation at the General Election of 1790

D E Ginter, 'Financing of the Whig Party Organisation 1783-93', Am.H.R. 1966

T Golby, 'A Great Electioneer and his motives', Hist. Journal, 1965

P Langford, ‘Property and ‘Virtual representation’ in Eighteenth century England’, Historical Journal, 1988

F O'Gorman, 'Electoral Deference in Unreformed England', Journal of Mod. Hist. 1984

F O'Gorman, 'The Unreformed Electorate of Hanoverian England', Social Hist, 1986

F O'Gorman, 'Election Ritual', Past and Present 1993

F O'Gorman, Voters, Patrons and Parties

J A Phillips, 'The Structure of the Unreformed electorate', Journal of Brit. Studies, 1979

G Rud?, 'The Middlesex electors of 1768-9', Eng.H.R. 1960

J J Sack, 'The House of Lords and Parliamentary patronage in Britain, 1802-32', Hist. Journal, 1980

E A Smith, 'The Election agent in English politics, 1784-1832', Eng. H.R. 1969

E A Smith, 'Lord Fitzwilliam and Malton', Eng. H.R. 1965

E A Smith, 'The Yorkshire elections of 1806-7', Northern History, 1967