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Additional Reference Bibliography

In addition to the readings provided to accompany lectures and seminars, this very broad general list may provide useful references for your essay research. You are also encouraged, indeed expected, to research widely beyond the works recommended in this bibliography, using the Library's resources as a starting point.

Note that matriculated students can find a lot of the core course readings here: AM101 Scanned Chapters . (If you are having trouble accessing these pages that suggests that there may be a problem with your registration, which you should attempt to resolve immediately.)

Abbreviated titles of periodicals and collections cited in booklist:

  • BLAR = Bulletin of Latin American Research (articles from here may be consulted at http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/bpl/blar)
  • CHLA = Cambridge History of Latin America
  • HAHR = Hispanic American Historical Review
  • JLAS = Journal of Latin American Studies
  • LARR = Latin American Research Review

Reference and Bibliography

  • Collier, Simon, Harold Blakemore and Thomas E Skidmore, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Griffin, C. C., ed., Latin America: A Guide to the Historical Literature
  • Handbook of Latin American Studies (published annually since 1936 and available online through the Library of Congress Website at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/hlas; hard copy available in the library, 3rd Floor Reference Section)
  • Latin American Research Review (3rd Floor Journals)
  • Lombardi, C. L. and J. V., Latin America: A Teaching Atlas

Surveys and Overviews

  • Bakewell, Peter, A History of Latin America (Oxford, 1997)
  • Bakewell, Peter with Jaqueline Holler, A History of Latin America to 1825 (Oxford, 2010)
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., The Cambridge History of Latin America
  • Burkholder, M. A., and L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (1997)
  • Chasteen, John Charles, and Joseph Tulchin, Problems in Modern Latin American History (Wilmington, 1994)
  • Chasteen, John Charles, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America (New York, 2002)
  • Dawson, Alexander, Latin America since Independence: A History with Primary Sources
  • Gibson, Charles, Spain in America
  • Keen, Benjamin, Latin American Civilization: History and Society, 1492 to the Present, Westview Press (Boulder, 1996), 6th edition, King, John, ed., Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture, (Cambridge, 2004)
  • Lockhart, James and Schwartz, Stuart, Early Latin America: a History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983)
  • Skidmore, Thomas and Peter Smith, Modern Latin America
  • Williamson, Edwin, The Penguin History of Latin America

Early Contact and Conquest

General Studies of Pre-Columbian and Colonial History

  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Colonial Spanish America
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., The Cambridge History of Latin America Vols I-II.
  • Burkholder, M. A., and L. L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (1997)
  • Collier, George, Renato Rosaldo and John Wirth, The Inca and Aztec States 1400 - 1800
  • Conrad, Geoffrey W., and Arthur A Demarest, Religion and Empire The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism
  • Crosby, Alfred, ‘Conquistador y Pestilencia: The First New World Pandemic and the Fall of the Great Indian Empires’ HAHR, vol.47 (1967) pp. 321-337
  • Crosby, Alfred, The Columbian Exchange Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492
  • Elliott, John, The Old World and the New
  • Gibson, Charles, Spain in America
  • Góngora, Mario, Studies in the Colonial History of Spanish America
  • Haring, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America
  • Harris, Marvin, Patterns of Race Relations in the Americas
  • Katz, Friedrich, Ancient American Civilizations
  • Lockhart, James, and Schwartz, Stuart, Early Latin America A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil
  • Lynch, John, Spain under the Habsburgs, vols. I and II
  • McAlister, L. N., Spain and Portugal in the New World (1983)
  • McFarlane, Anthony, 'Pre-Columbian and Colonial Latin America', in John King, ed., Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture
  • Mörner, Magnus, Race Mixture in the History of Latin America
  • Parry, J. H., The Spanish Seaborne Empire
  • Sánchez-Albornoz, Nicolas, The Population of Latin America: A History

Conquest and its aftermath

  • Chamberlain, Robert S., The Conquest and Colonisation of Yucatan
  • Chamberlain, Robert, ‘Two unpublished documents of Hernán Cortés and New Spain, 1519 and 1524’, HAHR, vol.18 (1938) pp. 514-525
  • Cieza de Leon, Pedro, Relation of the Discovery and Conquest of Peru
  • Clendinnen, Inga, ‘Fierce and Unnatural Cruelty: Cortes and the Conquest of Mexico’, New World Encounters, ed. Stephen Greenblatt (Oxford, 1993) (also in Representations, vol. 33 (1991), pp. 65-100.)
  • Cortés, Hernán, Letters from Mexico (edited by Anthony Pagden)
  • Diaz del Castillo, Bernal, ‘An Encomendero’s Opinions’, in James Lockhart and Enrique Otte, eds., Letters and People of the Spanish Indies pp. 70-82
  • Diaz del Castillo, Bernal, The Conquest of New Spain
  • Elliott, John, ‘The Mental World of Hernán Cortés’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol.17 (1967) pp. 41-58
  • Elliott, John, ‘The Spanish Conquest and Settlement of America’ in Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, vol. I, pp. 149-206.
  • Goodwyn, Frank, ‘Pánfilo de Narváez: a character study of the first Spanish leader to land an expedition in Texas,’ HAHR, vol.29 (1949) pp. 150-156
  • Hemmings, John, The Conquest of the Incas
  • Hugh Thomas, Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico (1994)
  • Jones, Grant D., The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom (1998)
  • Kizca, John, ‘Patterns in Early Spanish Overseas Exploration’, William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 49 (1992).
  • Lanyon, Anna, Malinche’s Conquest
  • Las Casas, Bartolome, Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies 
  • Leonard, Irving, Books of the Brave
  • Lockhart, James, Letters and people of the Spanish Indies, Part I: ‘The Conquest’.
  • Lockhart, James, Spanish Peru
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean See. A Life of Christopher Columbus, 2 Vols.
  • Padden, R. C., The Hummingbird and the Hawk: Conquest and Sovereignty in the Valley of Mexico, 1503-1541 (1967)
  • Prescott, William, History of the Conquest of Mexico and History of the Conquest of Peru
  • Sauer, Carl, The Early Spanish Main
  • Seed, Patricia. "Are These Not Also Men?' The Indians' Humanity and Capacity for Spanish Civilization." Journal of Latin American Studies 25:3 (1999): pp. 629-652.
  • Wagner, H. R., ‘The Lost First Letter of Cortés’, HAHR, vol. 21 (1941) pp. 669-672

Spanish Perceptions of Native Peoples

  • Davies, Nigel, The Aztecs
  • Kendal, Ann, Every Day Life of the Incas
  • Leonard, Irving, ‘Conquerors and Amazons in Mexico’ HAHR, vol. 24 (1944) pp. 561-579
  • Mason, J Alden, The Ancient Civilisations of Peru
  • Motolinia, Toribio de, History of the Indians of New Spain
  • Murra, John, Nathan Wachtel and Jacques Revel, eds., Anthropological History of Andean Polities
  • Pagden, Anthony, The Fall of Natural Man The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology
  • Phelan, J. L., The Millenial Kingdom of the Franciscans in the New World: a Study in the Writings of Geronimo de Mendieta, 1525-1604
  • Soustelle, Jacques, Daily Life of the Aztecs
  • Todorov, Tzvetan, The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other (1984)
  • Vaillant, George C., The Aztecs of Mexico
  • Vega, Garcilaso de la, Royal Commentaries of the Incas

Indian views of and response to the Conquest

Mesoamerica

  • Anderson, Arthur O., Frances Berdan and James Lockhart (trans. and eds), Beyond the Codices
  • Chapman, Donald, ‘Isabel Moctezuma: Pioneer of Mestizaje’, David G. Sweet and Gary Nash, eds., Struggle and Survival in Colonial America, pp. 214-227.
  • Clendinnen, Inga, Ambivalent Conquests. Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1517-1570
  • Clendinnen, Inga, The Aztecs
  • Fernández-Armesto, Felipe, ‘‘Aztec’ Auguries and Memories of the Conquest of Mexico’, Renaissance Studies, vol. 6:3-4 (1992)
  • Klor de Alva, Jorge, ‘Martin Ocelotl: Clandestine Cult Leader’, David G. Sweet and Gary Nash, eds., Struggle and Survival in Colonial America, pp. 128-141.
  • Leon-Portilla, Miguel, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest

The Andes

  • Kubler, George, ‘The Behaviour of Atahualpa’, HAHR, vol.25 (1945) pp. 413-427.
  • Lockhart, James, Spanish Peru: Chapter on ‘Indians’
  • Vega, Garcilaso de le, Royal Commentaries of the Incas
  • Wachtel, Nathan, ‘The Vision of the Vanquished: The Spanish Conquest of America Represented in Indian Folklore’, in Marc Ferro (ed. ) Social Historians in Contemporary France. Essays from Annales
  • Wachtel, Nathan, The Vision of the Vanquished: The Spanish Conquest of Peru Through Indian Eyes, 1530-1570 (1977)

Colonial Portuguese America

General Reading

  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, Vols. I-II.
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Colonial Brazil
  • Robert Levine and John Crocitti, eds. The Brazil Reader. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999
  • Parry, J. H., The Portuguese Seaborne Empire
  • Prado Junior, Caio, The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil
  • Schwartz, S. and Lockhart, J., Early Latin America, Chapters 6, 7, 10.
  • Skidmore, Thomas, Brazil Five Centuries of Change

Early Settlement and the introduction of slavery

  • Hemming, John, Red Gold: the Conquest of the Brazilian Indians
  • Schwartz, Stuart, ‘Indian Labor and New World Plantations: European Demands and Indian Response in North-eastern Brazil’, American Historical Review, vol. 83 (1978), pp. 43-79.

Indian Slavery

  • Merchant, Alexander, From Barter to Slavery The Economic Relations of Portuguese and Indians in the Settlement of Brazil 1500-1580

Slavery, Manumission, Resistance and Emancipation

Primary sources:
• Barnet, Miguel. Biography of a Runaway Slave, by Esteban Montejo, translated by Jocaster Innes. London: Bodley Head, 1963 [and many subsequent editions]
• Robert Conrad, ed., Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil (Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 1984), part 10: “The Abolition Struggle,” pp 418-482 (especially extracts numbers 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.8, 10.10)
• García, Gloria. Voices of the Enslaved in Nineteenth Century Cuba, translated by Nancy L. Westrate. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011. [e-book at library]
• Katharine J McKnight and Leo J Garofalo, eds. Afro-Latino Voices: Narratives from the Early Modern Ibero-Atlantic World, 1550-1812. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2009.
• Law, Robin, and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. The Biography of Mahomma Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America. New Jersey: Marcus Wiener, 2001.
• The Transatlantic Slavery Database: http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces
Constantly being updated, this database is the result of collaboration between many historians. It provides the most definitive detailed information about records of slaving voyages and individual slave journeys, as well as estimates of numbers trafficked and a set of essays about the trade and how to use the database. Highly recommended for any quantitative aspects of your study.

• African Origins: http://www.african-origins.org/
Information and life stories about trafficked Africans.

• Images of slavery database: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
A great site for visual sources.

Secondary sources on slavery:

Barcia Paz, Manuel. Seeds of Insurrection: Domination and Resistance on Western Cuban Plantations, 1808-1848. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
• Barcia Paz, Manuel. The Great African Slave Revolt of 1825: Cuba and the Fight for Freedom in Matanzas. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.
• Bergad, Laird. The Comparative Histories of Slavery in Brazil, Cuba, and the United States (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), Chapter 1: “From Colonization to Abolition: Patterns of Historical Development in Brazil, Cuba, and the United States,” pp 1-32 (scanned chapter available at Library)
• Castilho, Celso T. Slave Emancipation and Transformations in Brazilian Political Citizenship. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016.
• Childs, Matt D. The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle against Atlantic Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
• Robert Edgar Conrad, The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery, 1850-1888 (1972)
• Cowling, Camillia. “As a Slave Woman and as a Mother: Women and the Abolition of Slavery in Havana and Rio de Janeiro.” Social History, 26:3 (August 2011), 294-311
• Cowling, Camillia Conceiving Freedom: Women of Colour, Gender, and the Abolition of Slavery in Havana and Rio de Janeiro. UNC Press, 2013
• David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford, 2006
• De la Fuente, Alejandro. “Slave Law and Claims-making in Cuba: The Tannenbaum Debate Revisited.” Law and History Review, 22:2 (Summer 2004): 339-67.

• ________. “Slaves and the Creation of Legal Rights: Coartación and Papel.” HAHR, 87:4 (November 2007): 659-92.

• Drescher, Seymour. “Brazilian Abolition in Comparative Perspective.”Hispanic American Historical Review, 68:3 (August 1988): 429-60.
• Drescher, Seymour. From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1999.
• Ada Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation and Revolution, 1868-1898 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)
• Ferrer, Ada. Freedom’s Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
• Ferreira, Roquinaldo. Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Atlantic World: Angola and Brazil during the Era of the Slave Trade. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
• Karasch, Mary. Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1850. Princeton University Press, 1987. [E-book at library]
• Paquette, Robert. Sugar is Made with Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict between Empires over Slavery in Cuba. Middletown, Conneticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1988.

• Reid-Vázquez, Michele. The Year of the Lash: Free People of Colour in Cuba and the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.
• Thomas E. Skidmore, Black into white: race and nationality in Brazilian thought (1993), esp. Chapter 1: “The Intellectual Context of Abolition in Brazil,” pp 1-37.
• Graham, Sandra Lauderdale. “Being Yoruba in Rio de Janeiro.” Slavery & Abolition, 32:1 (March 2011): 1-26.
• Klein, Herbert S., and Francisco Vidal Luna, Slavery in Brazil. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
• Marquese, Rafael, and Tâmis Parron. Slavery & Politics: Brazil and Cuba, 1790-1850. Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2016.
• Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia, translated by Arthur Brakel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
• Scott, Rebecca J. “Defining the Boundaries of Freedom in the World of Cane: Cuba, Brazil and Louisiana after Emancipation.” American Historical Review, 99:1 (February 1994): 70-102.
• Scott, Rebecca J. Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labour, 1860-1899. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.
• Scott, Rebecca. “Explaining Abolition: Contradiction, Adaptation, and Challenge in Cuban Slave Society, 1860-1886.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26:1 (January 1984), 83-111.
• Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher. Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.
• Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher. Slavery, Freedom, and Abolition in Latin America and the Atlantic World. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2011.
• Scully, Pamela, and Diana Paton, eds. Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World. Durham: Duke, 2005.

  • Blackburn, Robin, The Making of New World Slavery from the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800 (Verso, 1997).
  • Eltis, David, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge, 2000).
  • Foner, Laura, and Eugene Genovese, eds., Slavery in the New World,
  • Klein, Herbert, African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean Oxford University Press (New York, 1986)
  • Russell-Wood, J. R., ‘Iberian Expansion and the Issue of Black Slavery’, American Historical Review, vol. 83/1 (1978), pp. 16-42 (for Portuguese attitudes towards slavery)
  • Schwartz, Stuart, ed., Special issue of HAHR: ‘Slavery and Race in Latin America’, vol. 82:3 (2002).
  • Sweet, David, ‘Black robes and black destiny: Jesuit views of African slavery in 17th-century Latin America’, Revista de Historia de América, vol. 86 (1978) pp. 87-133.Secondary sources:
  • Bastide, Roger, The African Religions of Brazil (for slave culture)
  • Dos Santos Gomes, Flávio, ‘A ‘Safe Haven’: Runaway Slaves, Mocombos, and Borders in Colonial Amazonia, Brazil’, HAHR, vol. 82:3 (2002).
  • Kent, R. K., ‘Palmares. An African State in Brazil’ Journal of African History, vol. VI (1965), pp. 161-75.
  • McFarlane, Anthony, 'Cimarrones and Palenques: Runaways and Resistance in Colonial Colombia', Slavery and Abolition, 6 (1985), 131-51.
  • Schwartz, Stuart, ‘The manumission of slaves in colonial Brazil: Bahia 1684-1745’, HAHR, vol. 54/4 (1974), pp. 603-65.
  • Schwartz, Stuart, ‘The Mocombo: Slave Resistance in Colonial Bahia’, Journal of Social History, vol. III (1970), pp. 313-333.
  • Schwartz, Stuart, ‘Free Farmers in a Slave Economy: TheLavradores deCana in Colonial Bahia’, in Dauril Alden (ed. ), Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil
  • Schwartz, Stuart, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society Bahia 1550-1835
  • Boxer, Charles R, Race relations in the Portuguese colonial empire
  • Russell Wood, A. J. R., ‘Black and mulatto brotherhoods in colonial Brazil’, HAHR, vol. 54/4 (1974), pp. 567-602.
  • Russell Wood, A. J. R., ‘Colonial Brazil’, in David W Cohen and Jack P Greene, eds., Neither slave nor free. The freedman of African descent in the slave societies of the New World
  • Rodriguez, Jose Honorio, Brazil and Africa
    Boxer, Charles, The Golden Age of Brazil, chapter 1 ‘Empire of the South Atlantic’
  • Foner, Laura, and Eugene Genovese, eds., Slavery in the New World, chapters by Frank Tannenbaum, Stanley Elkins, Sydney Mintz, Marvin Harris, David Brion Davis
  • Stein, Stanley, ‘Freyre’s Brazil Revisited’ HAHR, vol. XLI (1961) pp, 111-13.

Colonial Spanish America

General

  • Schwartz, Stuart, and Lockhart, J., Early Latin America, Chapters 3-5
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA Vols. I- II.
  • Andrien, Kenneth, Crisis in Decline: The Viceroyalty of Peru in the Seventeenth Century
  • Bakewell, Peter, Miners of the Red Mountain: Indian Labour in Potosi,1545-1650
  • Bakewell, Peter, Silver Mining and Society in Colonial Mexico: Zacatecas 1546-1767
  • Brading, David, and H. Cross, ‘Colonial Silver Mining. Mexico and Peru’, HAHR., vol.55 (1972)

Colonial Spanish America

  • Chevalier, Francois, Land and Society in Colonial Mexico
  • Fisher, Lillian E., Viceregal administration in the Spanish Colonies
  • Góngora, Mario, Studies in the Colonial history of Spanish America
  • Greenleaf, Richard, The Catholic Church in Colonial Latin America
  • Israel, Jonathan, Race, Class and Politics in Colonial Mexico.
  • Keith, R., ‘Encomienda, Hacienda and Corregimiento in Spanish America’, HAHR (1971), pp. 431-446.
  • Marzahl, Peter, ‘Creoles and Government: the Cabildo of Popayán’, HAHR vol. 54 (1974), or, see his book, A Town in the Empire
  • Morse, Richard, ‘Some Characteristics of Latin American urban history’, American Historical Review vol. 67 (1962). See also his Chapter in the CHLA, vol. II.
  • Ramirez, Susan, ‘Large Landowners’, in Louisa Hoberman and Susan Socolow, eds., Cities and Society in Colonial Latin America
  • Ricard, Robert, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico
  • Stein, Stanley and Barbara B., The Colonial Heritage of Latin America

Indians under Spanish Rule

  • Farriss, Nancy, Maya Society under Colonial Rule: the Collective Enterprise of Survival
  • Gibson, Charles, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule
  • Lockhart, James, ‘Capital and Province, Spaniard and Indian; The Example of Late Sixteenth Century Toluca’, in James Lockhart and Ida Altman, eds., Provinces of Early Mexico
  • Rowe, J. H., ‘The Inca under Spanish Colonial Institutions’, HAHR (1975)
  • Spalding, Karen, ‘Social Climbers: Changing Patterns of Mobility among the Indians of Colonial Peru’, HAHR, vol. 47 (1967)
  • Spalding, Karen, Huarochiri: an Andean Society under Inca and Spanish Rule
  • Spores, Ronald, The Mixtecs in Ancient and Colonial Times.
  • Stern, Steve, ‘The Rise and Fall of Indian-White Alliances; a Regional View of Conquest History’, HAHR, vol. 61 (1981)
  • Stern, Steve, Peru’s Indian Peoples and the Challenge of the Spanish Conquest: Huamanga to 1640

‘The Castes’

  • Alberro, Solange, ‘Juan de Morga and Gertrudis de Escobar: Rebellious Slaves’, in Gary Nash and David Sweet, eds., Struggle and Survival in Colonial America
  • Bowser, Frederick, ‘The Free Persons of Colour, 1680-1650’, in Stanley Engerman and Eugene Genovese, Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere
  • Bowser, Frederick, The African Slave in Colonial Peru
  • Chance, John, Race and Class in Colonial Oaxaca
  • Davidson, D., ‘Negro Slave control and resistance in colonial Mexico, 1519-1650’, HAHR, vol.46 (1966)
  • Gage, Thomas, Thomas Gages’ Travels in the New World (1532), pp.195-9.
  • Harris, Marvin, Patterns of Race Relations in the Americas
  • Lockhart, James, Spanish Peru, Chapter on Blacks.
  • Marshall, C. E., ‘The Birth of the Mestizo in New Spain’ HAHR, vol. 19 (1939), pp.161-184
  • Palmer, Colin, Slaves of a White God
  • Rout, Leslie, The African Experience in Spanish America

Bourbon Reforms, Late Colonial revolts and Independence Movements

General

  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, vol. III, chapters by John Lynch and Leslie Bethell
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., The Latin American Revolutions of Independence
  • Lynch, John, The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826
  • McFarlane, Anthony, ‘Independence and Revolution in the Americas, 1776-1826’, History Today, vol. 34 (1984); also reprinted in Carl Guaneri, ed., America Compared: American History in International Perspective (Boston and New York, 1997), pp. 116-132.
  • Schwartz, Stuart, and Lockhart, J., Early Latin America

The Bourbon Reforms and the Revolts

  • Brading, David, Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico, part I: ‘The Revolution in Government’
  • Fisher, John, Government and Society in Colonial Peru
  • Fisher, L. E., The Last Inca Revolt
  • Humphries, R. A., and John Lynch, The Origins of the Spanish American Revolutions
  • James, C. L. R., The Black Jacobins
  • Maxwell, Kenneth, Conflict and Conspiracies Brazil and Portugal
  • McFarlane, Anthony, Colombia before Independence:Economy, Society and Politics under Bourbon Rule
  • McFarlane, Anthony, 'Rebellions in Late Colonial Spanish America: A Comparative Perspective', Bulletin of Latin American Research. XIV, 1995, pp. 313-39
  • Phelan, J. L., The People and the King The Revolt of the Comuneros

The Independence Revolutions

  • Bushnell, D., Bolivar
  • Correa da Costa, S., Every Inch a King: a biography of Pedro I
  • Dominguez, Jorge, Insurrection or Loyalty
  • Hamill, Hugh, The Hidalgo Revolt
  • Kinsbruner, Jay, The Spanish American Independence Movements
  • Lynch, John, The Spanish American Revolutions
  • Lynch, John, Simon Bolivar
  • Manchester, A. K., ‘Paradoxical Pedro, First Emperor of Brazil’, HAHR, vol. 12 (1932). pp. 176-197.
  • Masur, S., Simon Bolivar
  • Nicholson, Irene, The Liberators
  • Russell Wood, A. J. R., From Colony to Nation: Essays on the Independence of Brazil
  • Tutino, John, From Insurrection to Revolution (Mexico)

Post-Independence History

General

  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Cambridge History of Latin America (Vols. 1-8
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Latin America: economy and society, 1870-1930
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Spanish America after Independence, c.1820-c.1870
  • Burns, E. Bradford, The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century
  • Bushnell, David, and N. Macaulay, The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century
  • Calvert, Peter, Latin America in the Twentieth Century
  • Dunkerley, James, 'Latin America since Independence' in John King (ed), Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture
  • Graham, R., The Idea of Race in Latin America
  • Halperín, Tulio, The Aftermath of Revolution in Latin America
  • Keen, Benjamin, and M. Wasserman, A Short History of Latin America
  • Skidmore, Tom E., and Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America

Economic History

  • Abel, Christopher, and C. M. Lewis, eds., Latin America, Economic Imperialism and the State
  • Albert, Bill, South America and the World Economy from Independence to 1930
  • Cardoso, F. H., and E. Faletto, Dependency and Development in Latin America
  • Cortes-Conde, R., The first stages of Modernization in Spanish America
  • Ferns, H. S., ‘Britain’s Informal Empire in Argentina, 1806-1914’, Past and Present, vol. 4 (1953), pp. 60-75
  • Furtado, Celso, Economic Development of Latin America
  • Furtado, Celso, The Economic Growth of Brazil
  • Gallagher, J., and R. Robinson, ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’, Economic History Review, vol. VI (1953)
  • Glade, W. P., The Latin American Economies
  • Humphreys, R. A., ed., British Consular Reports on Latin America 1824-26
  • Jones, C. A., ‘Business Imperialism’ and Argentina, 1875-1900: a theoretical note’, JLAS, vol. 12 (1980), pp. 437-444
  • Levin, J., The Export Economies
  • Marichal, C., A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America: from independence to the Great Depression
  • Miller, Rory, Latin America and Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • Platt, D. C. M., Latin America and British Trade 1806-1914
  • Platt, D.C.M., ‘Dependency in Nineteenth-Century Latin America’, LARR, vol. 15:1 (1980), pp.113-130 (but read also the comment by the Steins which follows it)
  • Platt, D.C.M., ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade. Some Reservations’, Economic History Review, vol. XXI (1968)
  • Rippy, J. F., British Investments in Latin America 1822-1949
  • Rippy, J. F., Rivalry of the United States and Great Britain over Latin America 1800-1830
  • Stein, Stanley and Barbara, The Colonial Heritage of Latin America

Mexico

  • Atkin, R., Revolution in Mexico
  • Beals, Carleton, Porfirio Diaz (2 Vols)
  • Benjamin, T., and W. McNellie, Other Mexico’s: essays on regional Mexican history
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, Vols. V-VI, chapters by J. Womack, A, Knight, and P. Smith
  • Brandenburg, Frank, The Making of Modern Mexico
  • Brunk, Samuel, ‘Remembering Emiliano Zapata: Three Moments in the Posthumous career of the Martyr of Chinameca’ HAHR, vol. 77 (1994), pp. 259-83.
  • Brunk, Samuel, ‘The Sad Situation of Civilians and Soldiers: the Banditry of Zapatismo in the Mexican Revolution’, American Historical Review, vol. 101 (1996)
  • Brunk, Samuel, Emiliano Zapata Revolution and Betrayal in Mexico (1995)
  • Cockcroft, J. D., Intellectual Precursors of the Mexican Revolution
  • Cumberland, Charles, Mexican Revolution. Genesis under Madero
  • Cumberland, Charles, Mexico: Struggle for Modernity
  • Cumberland, Charles, The Constitutionalist Years
  • Dunn, John, Modern Revolutions (Chapter on Mexico)
  • Friedlander, Judith, Being Indian in Hueyuapan
  • Friedrich, Paul, Agrarian Revolt in a Mexican Village
  • Haber, Stephen, ‘Anything Goes: Mexico’s ‘New’ Cultural History,’ HAHR, vol. 79:2 (May 1999).
  • Hamnett, Brian, A Concise History of Mexico (2000)
  • Hansen, R., The Politics of Mexican Development
  • Hart, J., Revolutionary Mexico: the coming and progress of the Mexican Revolution
  • Hellman, Judith, Mexico in Crisis
  • Joseph, Gilbert M., and Daniel Nugent, ‘Popular Culture and State Formation in Revolutionary Mexico’ in: Joseph and Nugent (eds.) Everyday Forms of State Formation. Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico, Duke University Press (Durham, 1994)
  • Knight, Alan, ‘Popular Culture and the Revolutionary State in Mexico, 1910-1940,’ HAHR, vol. 74:3 (August 1994).
  • Knight, Alan, ‘Land and Society in Revolutionary Mexico: the Destruction of the Great Haciendas’, Mexican Studies, vol. 7:1 (1991).
  • Knight, Alan, ‘Peasant and Caudillo in Revolutionary Mexico, 1910-1917’, in D. A. Brading, ed., Caudillo and Peasant in the Mexican Revolution, pp.17-58
  • Knight, Alan, ‘The Mexican Revolution: Bourgeois? Nationalist? Or Just ‘A Great Rebellion’?’, BLAR, vol. 4:2 (1985)
  • Knight, Alan, The Mexican Revolution (2 vols)
  • Lewis, Oscar, Pedro Martinez
  • Lewis, Oscar, Tepoztlán Restudied
  • Lewis, Oscar, The Children of Sanchez
  • McNeely, John, ‘Origins of the Zapata Revolt in Morelos’, HAHR, Vol,46 (1966)
  • Meyer, M., and W. Sherman, The course of Mexican History
  • Parkes, H. B., A History of Mexico
  • Pletcher, D. M., Rails, Mines and Progress - Seven American Promoters in Mexico
  • Ross, Stanley, ed., Is the Mexican Revolution Dead?
  • Ross, Stanley, Francisco Madero
  • Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo, The Great Rebellion
  • Simpson, L. B., Many Mexicos
  • Thomas Benjamin, La Revolución. Mexico’s Great Revolution as Memory, Myth, and History, University of Texas Press (Austin, 2000)
  • Tischendorf, A., Great Britain and Mexico in the era of Porfirio Diaz
  • Vanderwood, Paul, ‘Explaining the Mexican Revolution’ in: Jaime E. Rodríguez O., ed., The Revolutionary Process in Mexico (Los Angeles/Irvine: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, Mexico/Cicano Program, University of California, Irvine, 1990)
  • Vaughan, Mary Kay, ‘Cultural Approaches to Peasant Politics in the Mexican Revolution,’ HAHR 79:2 (May 1999).
  • Vaughan, Mary Kay, Cultural Politics in Revolution. Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940, University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 1998)
  • Wolf, Eric, Peasant Wars of the 20th Century (Chapter on Mexico)
  • Womack, John, ‘The Mexican Economy during the Revolution, 1910-1920: historiography and Analysis’, Marxist Perspectives vol. 1/4 (1978), pp. 80-123
  • Womack, John, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution

Brazil

General

  • Bello, J. M. A History of Modern Brazil
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Brazil, Empire & Republic 1822-1930
  • Burns, E Bradford, A History of Brazil
  • Conniff, Michael, and F. D. McCass, eds., Modern Brazil: elites and masses in historical perspective
  • Fausto, Boris, A Concise History of Brazil (Cambridge, 1999)
  • Furtado, Celso, Economic Growth of Brazil
  • Robert Levine and John Crocitti
  • Poppino, Rollie, Brazil, The Land and the People
  • Skidmore, Thomas, Brazil Five Centuries of Change
  • Skidmore, Tom, Black into White, Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought
  • Skidmore, Tom, Politics in Brazil 1930-1964
  • Smith, Lynn, Brazil, People and Institutions

Slavery

  • Bethell, Leslie, The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade
  • Conrad, Robert, The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery 1850-1888
  • Costa, V. da, ‘Why slavery was abolished’, in L. Hanke, History of Latin American Civilisation
  • Freyre, G., The Masters and the Slaves
  • Galloway, J. R., ‘The last years of slavery on the sugar plantations of N.E. Brazil’, HAHR (1971)
  • Graham, Richard, ‘The causes for the abolition of slavery in Brazil: the case of Sao Paulo’, HAHR (1969)
  • Graham, Richard, Vassouras. A Brazilian Coffee County, 1850-1900
  • Skidmore, T.E., ‘The Death of Brazilian Slavery 1866-88’, in F.B. Pike,Latin American History: Select Problems
  • Toplin, R., ‘Upheaval, violence and the abolition of slavery in Brazil: the case of Sao Paulo’, HAHR (1969)

The Empire

  • Carvalho, J. M. de, ‘Political Elites and State Building: the case of nineteenth-century Brazil’ Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 24 (1982), pp. 378-399.
  • Flory, T., ‘Judicial Politics in Nineteenth-Century Brazil’, HAHR, vol. 55 (1975), pp. 644-692.
  • Manchester, A. K., British pre-eminence in Brazil: its rise and decline
  • Pang, E. S., and R. L. Seckinger, ‘The Mandarins of Imperial Brazil’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 14 (1972) pp. 215-244
  • Viotti da Costa, E., The Brazilian Empire: myths and realities

The Old Republic

  • Cunningham Graham, R. D., A Brazilian Mystic
  • De la Cava, Ralph, Miracle at Josaeiro
  • Dean, Warren, The Industrialisation of Sao Paulo 1880-1945
  • Della Cava, Ralph, ‘Brazilian Messianism and National Institutions’ HAHR, vol. 48 (1968), pp. 402-20.
  • Hahner, June, ‘The Paulistas Rise to Power’, HAHR (1967)
  • Levine, Robert, ‘‘Mud-Hut Jerusalem’: Canudos Revisited’ HAHR, vol. 68, pp. 525-572.
  • Love, J., Rio Grande do Sul and Brazilian Regionalism, 1882-1930
  • Nunes, Victor L., Coronelismo: the municipality and representative government in Brazil
  • Pang, E. Soo, ‘Coronelismo in North Eastern Brazil’, in R. Kern, ed., The Caciques
  • Vargas Llosa, Mario, The War at the End of the World

Twentieth-Century Brazil

  • Bacha, E. L., and H. S. Klein, eds., Social Change in Brazil, 1945-1985: the incomplete transition
  • Baer, W., Industrialisation and Economic Development in Brazil
  • Carvalho, J. M. de, ‘Armed Forces and Politics in Brazil, 1930-1945’, HAHR, vol. 62 (1982), pp. 192-223.
  • Hanchard, Michael George, Orpheus and Power: the Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paul, 1945-1988 1994
  • Hilton, S. E., ‘Military influence on Brazilian Economic Policy 1930-45’, HAHR (1973)
  • Hilton, S. E., ‘Vargas and Brazilian Economic Development, 1930-1964’ Journal of Economic History, vol. 35 (1975), pp. 754-778
  • Andrew Kirkendall, Paulo Freire and the Cold War Politics of Literacy. [comparative, Latin America 1960s-1990s, with chapters on Brazil] UNC Press, 2010. [e-book @ Library]
  • Levine, Robert, The Vargas Regime, The Critical Years 1934-38
  • Levine, Robert, Rather of the Poor? Vargas and his Era (Cambridge, 1998)
  • McCann, Bryan, Hello Hello Brazil: Popular Music in the Making of Modern Brazil, Duke University Press (Durham, 2004).
  • Quartim, J., Dictatorship and Armed Struggle in Brazil
  • Roelt, R., ed., Brazil in the Sixties
  • Skidmore, Tom, Politics in Brazil 1930-1964
  • Stepan, A., ed., Authoritarian Brazil
  • Stepan, A., The Military in Politics, Changing Patterns in Brazil
  • Wallerstein, M., ‘The Collapse of Democracy in Brazil: its economic determinants’, LARR, vol. 15 (1980)
  • Williams, Daryle, Culture Wars in Brazil: the First Vargas Regime, 1930-1945 (Duke University Press, 2001)
  • Wirth, J., The Politics of Brazilian Development, 1930-54

Argentina

  • Baily, S., Nationalism and Politics in Argentina
  • Barager, J., Why Perón came to Power
  • Barnes, J., Eva Perón
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, vol. V, chapters 9-12.
  • Blansten, G., Nationalism and Politics in Argentina
  • Bourne, R., Political Leaders in Latin America (see essay on Eva Perón)
  • Brennan, James, Peronism and Argentina, SR Books (Wilmington, 1998)
  • Brown, J. C., ‘The Bondage of Old Habits in Nineteenth-Century Argentina’, LARR, vol. 21 (1986), pp. 3-32.
  • Di Tella, T., ‘Working-class Organisation and Politics in Argentina, Latin American Research Review, vol. 16 (1981)
  • Falcoff, Mark, ‘Raul Scalabrini Ortiz’, HAHR, vol.52 (1972)
  • Falcoff, Mark, and R. H. Dolkart, Prologue to Per6n Argentina in Depression and War
  • Gallo, Ezequiel, ‘Agrarian Expansion and Industrial Development in Argentina’, in R. Carr, ed., St Antony’s Papers, No. 22
  • Goldwert, M., ‘The rise of modern militarism in Argentina’, HAHR, vol.48 (1968)
  • Karol, J. C., and H. Sabato, ‘Incomplete Industrialization: an Argentine obsession’, LARR vol. 25:1 (1990), pp. 7-30
  • Lewis, P., The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism
  • Little, Walter, ‘Party and State in Peronist Argentina’, HAHR vol. 53 (1973), pp. 644-662.
  • Little, Walter, ‘The Popular Origins of Peronism’ in David Rock (ed,) Argentina in the 20th. Century
  • Potash, R. A., The Army and Politics in Modern Argentina
  • Potter, A. L., Failure of Democracy in Argentina, 1916-1930: an institutional perspective’, JLAS vol. 13 (1981), pp. 83-109
  • Rock, David, ‘Radical Populism 1912-1930’ in D. Rock (ed,) Argentina in the Twentieth Century
  • Rock, David, ‘The Survival of Peronism’ in D, Rock ed. Argentina in the 20th. Century
  • Rock, David, Argentina 1516-1988
  • Rock, David, Politics in Argentina, 1890-1930
  • Rock, David, The Argentine Economy, 1890-1914: some salient features’. in G. Di Tella and D.C..M. Platt, eds., The Political Economy of Argentina, 1880-1946, pp. 60-73.
  • Scobie, J. R., Argentina A City and a Nation
  • Taylor, Julie, Eva Per6n The Myths of a Woman
  • Waisman, C. H., Reversal of Development in Argentina: post-war counter-revolutionary policies and their structural consequences
  • Wynia, G.W., Argentina in the Post-War Era: politics and economic policy-making in a divided society

Chile

  • Alexander, Robert, Organized Labour in Latin America
  • Allende, Salvador, Chile’s Road to Socialism
  • Bauer, A., Chilean Rural Society
  • Blakemore, Harold, ‘The politics of Nitrate in Chile: pressure groups and politics, 1870-1896’, Revue francaise d’outre-mer, vol. 46 (1979)
  • Blakemore, Harold, ‘The Revolution of 1891 and its Historiography’, HAHR (1965)
  • Blakemore, Harold, British Nitrates and Chilean Politics
  • Brarhona de Brito, Alexandra, Human Rights and Democratization in Latin America: Uruguay and Chile (Oxford, 1997)
  • Bulletin of Latin American Studies, special issue on Chile: A Decade in Transition, vol. 21:3 (2002)
  • Clissold, Stephen, Bernardo O’Higgins and the Independence of Chile
  • Collier, Simon, ‘Chile from Independence to the Pacific War’. in Bethell, Leslie, ed., CHLA, vol. III, pp. 583-614 (also in Leslie Bethell, ed., Spanish America after Independence, 1820-1870 pp.283-313.)
  • Collier, Simon, Ideas and Politics of Chilean Independence
  • Dandavati, Annie, The Women’s Movement and the Transition to Democracy in Chile
  • Drake, Paul, and Iván Jaksic, eds., The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, 1982-1990 (London, 1991)
  • Kinsbruner, Jay, Chile, A Historical Interpretation
  • Kinsbruner, Jay, Diego Portales: interpretative essays on the man and his times
  • Loveman, Brian, Chile, the legacy of Hispanic Capitalism
  • NACLA: Report on the Americas: special issue on Chile After the Arrest of Pinochet, vol. 32:6 (1999)
  • Nunn, Frederick, ‘Military Rule in Chile, the Revolutions of September 1924 and January 1925’, HAHR (1967)
  • Nunn, Frederick, 'Emil Körner and the Prussianization of the Chilean Army: Origins, Process, and Consequences, 1885-1920', The Hispanic American Historical Review Vol. 50, No. 2 (May, 1970), pp. 300-322
  • O’Brien, Patrick, ‘Authoritarianism and the New Orthodoxy: the political economy of the Chilean regime’, in Patrick O’Brien & P. Cammack, eds., Generals in Retreat: the crisis of military rule in Latin America, pp. 144-183
  • O’Brien, T. F., The Nitrate Industry and Chile’s Crucial Transition, 1870-1891
  • O’Shaughnessey, Hugh, Pinochet: The Politics of Torture (1999)
  • Petras, James, and Fernando Ignacio Leiva, Democracy and Poverty in Chile: The Limits of Electoral Politics (Oxford, 1994)
  • Petras, James, How Allende Fell
  • Raptis, M., Revolution Counter-Revolution in Chile
  • Rosenfield, Stephanie, and Juan Luis Marré, ‘How Chile’s Rich Got Richer’, NACLA: Report on the Americas, vol. 30:6 (1997)
  • Roxborough, Ian et. al., Chile, the State and the Revolution
  • Sigmund, Paul, The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976.
  • Solberg, Carl, Immigration and Nationalism. Argentina and Chile 1890-1914
  • Talyor, Lucy, Participation and Democracy: Changing Dynamics in Chile and Argentina (Basingstoke, 1998)
  • Valenzuela, J. S. and A. Military Rule in Chile: dictatorship and opposition
  • Vylder, Stefan, Allende’s Chile
  • Wilde, Alexander, ‘Irruptions of Memory: Expressive Politics in Chile’s Transition to Democracy’ JLAS, vol. 31 (1999), pp. 473-500.
  • Winn, Peter, Weavers of Revolution
  • Zammit, Anne, The Chilean Road to Socialism
  • Zeitlin, Maurice, ‘The Social Determinants of Political Democracy in Chile’ in J. Petras and M. Zeitlin, eds., Latin America, Reform-or Revolution?

Cuba

  • Bethell, Leslie, ed., Cuba: A Short History (Cambridge, 1993)
  • Blackburn, Robin, ‘Prologue to the Cuban Revolution’ New Left Review, Oct.1963
  • Brenner, Philip, William LeoGrande, Donna Rich and Daniel Siegel, eds., The Cuba Reader (New York, 1989)
  • Chapman, C., A History of the Cuban Republic
  • Domínguez, Jorge, Cuba: Order and Revolution
  • Dunn, John, Modern Revolutions, chapter 8
  • Gray, R., Jose Marti, Cuban Patriot
  • Guerra y Sanchez, Sugar and Society in the Caribbean
  • Guevara, Ernesto Che, Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War
  • Hennessy, C. A. M., ‘Cuba, the politics of a frustrated nationalism’, in J. Needler, Political Systems of Latin America
  • Hennessy, C. A. M., ‘The Roots of the Cuban Nationalism’ in R. Smith, Background to Revolution
  • Kapcia, Antoni, Cuba Island of Dreams (2000)
  • Karol, K. S., Guerrillas in Power
  • Kenner, Martin, and James Petras, eds., Fidel Castro Speaks (New York, 1969)
  • Knight, Franklin, Slave Society in Cuba during the l9th Century
  • Lewis, Oscar, Living the Revolution: an Oral History of Contemporary Cuba
  • Liss, S. B., Fidel! Castro’s Political and Social Thought
  • Martinez-Alier, Verena, Marriage, Class and Colour in 19th Century Cuba
  • Meso-Lago, Carmelo, Cuba in the 1970s
  • Morley, Morris, Imperial State and Revolution: the United States and Cuba
  • Moses, Catherine, Real Life in Castro’s Cuba (Delaware, 2000)
  • O’Connor, J., The Origins of Socialism in Cuba
  • Pollitt, Brian, ‘The Cuban Sugar Economy: Collapse, Reform and Prospects for Recovery’, JLAS, vol. 29 (1997)
  • Randall, Margaret, Cuban Women Now
  • Rosendahl, Mona, Inside the Revolution: Everyday Life in Socialist Cuba
  • Ruiz, R., The Making of a Revolution
  • Scott, Rebecca, Slave Emancipation in Cuba
  • Smith, Lois M, Sex and Revolution: Women in Socialist Cuba
  • Smith, R., ed., Background to the Revolution
  • Smith, R., The U.S. and Cuba: business and diplomacy 1917—1960
  • Smith, R., What Happened in Cuba?
  • Stubbs, Jean, Cuba: the Test of Time
  • Thomas, Hugh, Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom
  • Turnbull, D., Travels in the West of Cuba

Central America

  • Anderson, T., Matanza
  • Black, George, Garrison Guatemala
  • Black, George, Triumph of the People: The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua
  • Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, ‘Economic Development over the Long Run: Central America since 1920’, JLAS, vol. 15 (1983), pp. 269-294.
  • Burgos-Debray, Elisabeth, and Rigoberta Menchú, I, Rigoberta Menchú (Verso, 1984)
  • Dunkerley, James, Power in the Isthmus
  • Fried, J. L. et al, Guatemala in Rebellion: an unfinished history
  • Perez Brignoli, H., A Short History of Central America
  • Schlessinger, S., and S. Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala
  • Weber, H., The Sandinista Revolution
  • Weeks, John, ‘An Interpretation of the Central American Crisis’, LARR, vol. 21:3 (1986), pp. 31-54
  • Woodward, R. L., ‘The Rise and Decline of Liberalism in Central America: historical perspectives on the contemporary crisis’, JIASWA, vol. 26:3 (1984), pp. 291-312
  • Woodward, R. L., Central America: A Nation Divided

Film and Video

  • Bauer, Tristán and Miguel Bonasso (directors), Evita-The Unquiet Grave, 1998—about Eva Perón’s body
  • Bemberg, María Luisa (director), Miss Mary, 1986—set in 1930s Argentina
  • Bemberg, María Luisa (director), I, the Worst of them All (Yo, la Peor de Todas), 1990—set in colonial Mexico
  • Guerra, Ruy (director), Opera do Malandro, 1986—set in Brazil under Vargas
  • Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás (director), Memories of Underdevelopment (Memorias del Subdesarrollo) 1986—about the aftermath of the Cuban Revolution
  • Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás (director), Strawberry and Chocolate (Fresa y Chocolate), 1994—set in Cuba in the 1990s
  • Guzmán, Patricio (director), The Battle of Chile, 1973-1976—about Pinochet’s 1973 coup in Chile
  • Puenzo, Luis (director), The Old Gringo, 1989—set during the Mexican Revolution
  • Rocha, Glauber (director), White God, Black Devil, 1964—set in Brazil during the Old Republic
  • Wenders, Wim (director), Buena Vista Social Club1999—music and society in 1990s Cuba

Internet Sources