| Discussion topics | Documents | Audio | Reading |
- What were the characteristics of early modern empires?
- How different were early modern empires?
- What challenges did early modern empires pose to their metropoles?
- What effect did early modern empires have on the colonised?
- How did European empires compare to Asian empires?
- What were the challenges facing rulers of early modern empires?
Which factors contributed to the rise and decline of empires?
**NOTE: Some eresources are accessible only on-campus or via off-campus proxies or the athens service**
- BBC Radio 4 'In Our Time' podcast: 'The Siege of Vienna'
- In Our Time: The Mughal Empire (with Sanjay Subrahmanyam and Susan Stronge)
Selected key texts
- P. Cardim, T. Herzog, J. J. Ruiz Ibáñez, G. Sabatini (eds), Polycentric Monarchies: How Did Early Modern Spain & Portugal Achieve & Maintain a Global Hegemony? (2014) (ebook)
- T. Dandelet, The Renaissance of Empire in Early Modern Europe (2014) (ebook)
- J.H. Elliott, ‘A Europe of composite monarchies’, P&P 137 (1992)
- S. Hindle and B. Kümin, 'Centre and Periphery' in B. Kümin (ed.), The European World (2014; 2nd ed.
S. Subrahmanyam, ‘A Tale of Three Empires: Mughals, Ottomans, and Habsburgs in a Comparative Context’, Common Knowledge 12.1 (2006): 66-92.
- C.K. Woodworth, ‘Ocean and Steppe: Early Modern World Empires’, Journal of Early Modern History 11.6 (2007): 501-518
Early Modern Empires
- P.F. Bang and D. Kolodziejczyk, Universal Empire: A Comparative Approach to Imperial Culture and Representation in Eurasian History (2012)
- J. Burbank and F. Cooper, Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference (2010)
- G. Casale, ‘The Islamic Empires of the Early Modern World’, in: J. Bentley, S. Subrahmanyam, and M.E. Wiesner-Hanks, eds., The Cambridge World History, Volume 6: The Construction of a Global World, 1400-1800 CE, Part 1: Foundations (2015)
- S.F. Dale, The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals (2010)
- J. Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400-2000 (2007)
- J. Duindam, T. Artan, and M. Kunt, eds, Royal Courts in Dynastic States and Empires: A Global Perspective (2011)
- J.H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492-1830 (2007)
- A. Kappeler, The Russian Empire: a Multiethnic History (2001)
- C.H. Parker, Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age (2010)
- D.E. Streusand, Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals (2011)
- J.D. Tracy, ed., The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750 (1990)
The Habsburg/Holy Roman/Spanish Empires
W. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V: 1500-1558 (2002)
F. Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 2 (1972)
C. S. Dixon, ‘Charles V and the Historians: Some Recent German Works on the Emperor and His Reign', German History 21 (2003), 104-124
J. Edwards, Ferdinand and Isabella (2004)
- A. Espinosa, The Empire of the Cities: Emperor Charles V, the Comunero Revolt, and the Transformation of the Spanish System (2009)
- F. Fernández-Armesto with J-J López-Portillo, A Short History of the Spanish Empire (2019)
P. Sutter Fichtner, The Habsburg Monarchy 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire (2003)
- M. van Gelderen (ed. and trans.), The Dutch Revolt (1993)
H. Kamen, Philip of Spain (1997)
“ , Spain 1469-1714: Society of Conflict (1991 edn)
“ , Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power 1492-1763 (2002)
H.G. Koenigsberger, ‘The Empire of Charles V’, in G. R. Elton (ed.), The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 2 The Reformation, 1520-1559 (revised edn, 1990) (ebook)
“ , ‘The Statecraft of Philip II’, European History Quarterly, 1 (1971)
“ , ‘Western Europe and the power of Spain’, in R. B. Wenham, The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 3 Counter-Reformation and Price Revolution, 1559-1610 (1968) (ebook)
“ , 'The Politics of Philip II’, in Thorp & Slavin (eds), Politics, Religion and Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe (1994)
M. Levin, 'A New World Order: The Spanish Campaign for Precedence in Early Modern Europe' in Journal of Early Modern History 6, no. 3 (2002)
J. Lynch, Spain 1516-1598: From Nation State to World Empire (1991) (earlier edns: Spain under the Habsburgs)
W. Maltby, The Reign of Charles V (2002)
- Henk van Nierop, The Netherlands (Dutch Revolt/ Dutch Republic) (2012-)
G. Parker, ‘Philip II & His World in the 1580’s’, in R. Kagan and G. Parker (eds), Spain, Europe and the Atlantic World (1995)
- " , Emperor: A New Life of Charles V (2019)
“ , The Grand Strategy of Philip II (1998)
- " , Imprudent King: A New Life of Philip II (2014)
- M. Rady, The Habsburg Empire: A Very Short Introduction (2017)
H. Rawlings, The Debate on the Decline of Spain (2012)
H. Soly (ed.), Charles V 1500-1558 and his Time (1999), esp. chaps. on religion and international relations
J. Tracy, Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics (2002)
" , The Holy Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction (2018)
A. Wheatcroft, The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe (2009)
P. H. Wilson, The Holy Roman Empire: A Thousand Years of Europe's History (2016)
- E. R. Wright, S. Spence, and A. Lemons (eds and trans.), The Battle of Lepanto (2014)
The Mughal Empire
- M. Alam, The Languages of Political Islam: India, 1200-1800 (2004)
- M. Alam and S. Subrahmanyam, eds., The Mughal State 1526-1750 (1998)
- M. Alam and S. Subrahmanyam, Writing the Mughal World: Studies on Culture and Politics (2012)
- C.B. Asher, Architecture of Mughal India (1992)
- C.B. Asher and C. Talbot, India Before Europe (2006)
- M. Athar Ali, Mughal India: Studies in Polity, Ideas, Society, and Culture (2006)
- M. Athar Ali, The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb (1968)
- L. Balabanlilar, Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern South and Central Asia (2012)
- M. Bhargava, ed., The Decline of the Mughal Empire (2014)
- S.P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739 (1990)
- S. Chandra, State, Society, and Culture in Indian History (2012)
- M. Cleveland Beach, Mughal and Rajput Painting (1992)
- V. Dalmia and M.D. Faruqui, Religious Interactions in Mughal India (2014)
- A. Das Gupta, The World of the Indian Ocean Merchant 1500-1800 (2004)
- A. De la Garza, The Mughal Empire at War: Babur, Akbar and the Indian Military Revolution, 1500-1605 (2016)
- R.M. Eaton, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760 (1993)
- M.D. Faruqui, Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504-1719 (2012)
- J. Flores, Unwanted Neighbours: The Mughals, the Portuguese, and Their Frontier Zones (2018)
- J. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and High Roads to Empire, 1500-1700 (2002)
- J. Gommans, The Indian Frontier: Horse and Warband in the Making of Empires (2017)
- I. Habib, The Agrarian System of Mughal India, 1556-1707, 3rd ed. (2014)
- F. Hasan, State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, c. 1572-1730 (2004)
- E. Koch, Mughal Architecture: An Outline of its History and Development, 1526-1858 (1991)
- R. Lal, Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World (2005)
- P. Malekandathil, The Mughals, the Portuguese, and the Indian Ocean: Changing Imageries of Maritime India (2013)
- P.J. Marshall, ed., The Eighteenth Century in Indian History: Evolution or Revolution? (2003)
- A.A. Moin, The Millennial Sovereign: Sacred Kingship and Sainthood in Islam (2014)
- S. Moosvi, The Economy of the Mughal Empire, c. 1595: A Statistical Study (2015)
- O. Prakash, Bullion for Goods: European and Indian Merchants in the Indian Ocean Trade, 1500-1800 (2004)
- O. Prakash, European Commercial Enterprise in Pre-Colonial India (1998)
- J.F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (1993)
- A. Schimmel, The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (2004)
- D.E. Streusand, The Formation of the Mughal Empire (1989)
- S. Stronge, Made for Mughal Emperors: Royal Treasures from Hindustan (2010)
- S. Subrahmanyam, Mughals and Franks: Explorations in Connected History (2005)
- A. Truschke, Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India’s Most Controversial King (2017)
- A. Truschke, Culture of Encounters: Sanskrit at the Mughal Court (2016)
The Ottoman Empire
R. A. Abou-el-Haj, Formation of the Modern State: The Ottoman Empire, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005).
G. Agoston, 'Information, ideology and limits of imperial policy: Ottoman grand strategy in the context of Ottoman-Habsburg rivalry', in The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire, ed. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 75-103.
- G. Agoston, 'Ottoman Warfare, 1453-1826', in European Warfare, 1453-1815, ed. Jeremy Black (London: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), pp. 118-44.
- G. Agoston, Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
- V. Aksan and D. Goffman (eds.), The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007). (various useful articles)
- V. Aksan, 'Ottoman War and Warfare, 1453-1812', in War in the Early Modern World, ed. Jeremy Black (London: UCL Press, 1999), pp. 147-75. V. Aksan, Ottoman Wars 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged (Harlow: Pearson, 2007).
- K. Barkey, Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008)
A. Cirakman, From the "Terror of the World" to the "Sick Man of Europe": European Images of Ottoman Empire and Society from the Sixteenth Century to the Nineteenth Century (2002)
S. N. Faroqhi (ed.), Cambridge History of Turkey: Vol. 2 The Ottoman Empire as a World Power, 1453-1603 (2012) (ebook) and Cambridge History of Turkey: Vol. 3 The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603-1839 (2006) (ebook)
- S. Faroqhi, The Ottoman Empire: A Short History (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2008).
- C. Finkel, Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire (London: John Murray, 2006).
S. Fischer-Galati, Ottoman Imperialism and German Protestantism, 1521-55 (1959)
- J.-P. Ghobrial, The Whispers of Cities: Information Flows in Istanbul, London and Paris in the Age of William Trumbull (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
D. Goffman, The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe (2000) (ebook)
- M. Greene, A Shared World: Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
A.C. Hess, ‘The Ottoman conquest of Egypt (1517) and the sixteenth-century world war’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 4 (1973)
- H. Inalcik and D. Quataert (eds.), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
C. Imber, The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1600. The Structure of Power (2002)
H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600 (1973)
- G. Karman and L. Kuncevic (eds.), The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Leiden: Brill, 2013).
M. Kunt & C. Woodhead, Süleyman the Magnificent and His Age (1995)
- I. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
- M. Mazower, The Balkans: From the End of Byzantium to the Present Day (London: Phoenix, 2000).
R. Murphey, ‘Süleyman I and the conquest of Hungary’, Journal of Early Modern History 5 (2001)
- L. Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
- L. Peirce, 'Changing Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire: The Early Centuries', Mediterranean Historical Review 19 (2004), 6-28.
- D. Quataert, The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922, second ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
A. Stiles, The Ottoman Empire 1450-1700 (1989)
- B. Tezcan, The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
- A. Wheatcroft, The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe (2009)
C. Woodhead, ‘Consolidating the Empire: New Views on Ottoman History 1453-1839’, English Historical Review 123 (2008) (review article)
C. Woodhead, ed., The Ottoman World (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012)
- The Holy Roman Empire - the history and structures of the Empire with documents.
- The Revolt of the Netherlands - documents relating to the Reformation and the Revolt of the Low Countries, 1555-1609
- Philip II, Letters - Collection of letters of Philip II of Spain (in Spanish)
- Early Modern Austrian Absolutism - collection of documents relating to the Austrian Habsburgs
- Portugal in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries - account from Stanley Payne's A History of Spain and Portugal
- The Spanish Empire - online course and resources exploring the grographic, cultural, economic and administrative dimensions of the early modern Spanish empire
- European State Finance Database - project collating European fiscal data across history
- History of Trade - discussion of different types of European trading nations