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The Schism

Seminar Questions

  • Was the papacy strengthened or weakened during its residence in Avignon?
  • Was 'Conciliarism' ever a feasible option for governing the medieval church?


Introductory Reading

Barber, The Two Cities, 108-111

Bartlett, The Making of Europe. No readings.

Waley and Denley, Later Medieval Europe, 112-131, 235-238


Further Reading (See also reading for The Medieval Church: I)


Crowder, C.M.D. (ed. and trans.), Unity, Heresy and Reform, 1378-1460: the Conciliar Response to the Great Schism (London, 1977)

Thomson, J., Popes and Princes 1417-1517: Politics and Polity in the Late Medieval Church (London, 1980)

The Avignon Papacy

Menache, Sophia, Clement V (Cambridge, 1998) [also online]

Mollat, Guillaume, The Popes at Avignon, 1305-1378 (New York, 1965)

Renouard, Yves, The Avignon Papacy, 1305-1403, trans. Denis Bethell (London, 1970)

Wood, Diana, Clement VI: The Pontificate and Ideas of an Avignon Pope (Cambridge, 1989)

The Great Schism and Conciliarism

Antony Black, 'Popes and councils' in New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 7, pp. 65 - 86.

Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate, Poets, Saints and Visionaries of the Great Schism, 1378 -1417 (2006).

Swanson, R.N., Universities, Academics and the Great Schism (1979).

Tierney, Brian, Foundations of the Conciliar Theory (Cambridge, 1955)

Ullmann, Walter, The Origins of the Great Schism (London, 1948)