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European Contact with Others: The Crusades

Seminar and Essay Questions

  • Were the motives of the crusaders primarily religious or economic?
  • Why were the later crusades so much less successful than the first?
  • To what extent was the Fourth Crusade a perversion of the crusading ideal?
  • What type of rewards did crusading offer to those taking part?


Introductory Reading

Barber, The Two Cities, 112-30, 352-372, 445-458.

Bartlett, The Making of Europe, 85-105, 260-268, 308-309

Power, The Central Middle Ages, 200-206

Tyerman, C. 'What the Crusades Meant to Europe' in P. Linehan, and J.L. Nelson (eds), The Medieval World (London, 2001), pp. 131-145.

Waley and Denley, Later Medieval Europe, 251-262, 275-276


Further Reading


Angold, Michael, The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context (Harlow, 2003)

Herrin, Judith, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (Harmondsworth, 2007)

Haldon, John, Byzantium: A History (Stroud, 2002)

Mango, Cyril (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002)

Nicol, Donald, The Last Centuries of Byzantium (London, 1972)

Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium, 3 vols (London, 1988-1995)

Robert of Clari, The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. and ed. Edgar Holmes McNeal (Toronto, 1996)

The Rise of Islam

Ettinghausen, Richard, and Oleg Grabar, The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250 (New Haven, 1987)

Kennedy, Hugh, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, 2nd ed. (Harlow, 2004)

Lapidus, Ira M., A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge, 1988)

Lewis, D.L., God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215 (New York, 2008)

The Crusades

Angold, Michael, The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context (Harlow, 2003)

Asbridge, Thomas, The First Crusade: A New History (London, 2004)

Christiansen, Eric, The Northern Crusade: the Baltic and the Catholic Frontier, 1100-1525, 2nd ed. (Harmondsworth, 1997)

Hillenbrand, Carole, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh, 1999)

Housley, Norman, The Later Crusades, 1274-1580 (Oxford, 1992)

Housley, Norman, Crusading and the Ottoman Threat, 1453-1505 (Oxford, 2012)

Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M.R.B. Shaw (Harmondsworth, 1963)

Maalouf, Amin, The Crusades through Arab Eyes, trans. Jon Rothschild (London, 1984)

Madden, Thomas F. (ed.), The Crusades: The Essential Readings (Oxford, 2002)

Mayer, H.E., The Crusades, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1988)

Phillips, J.R.S., The Medieval Expansion of Europe, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1998)

Riley-Smith, Jonathan (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford, 1995) [also online]

Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Crusades: A Short History (London, 1987)

Robert of Clari, The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. and ed. Edgar Holmes McNeal (Toronto, 1996)

Setton, Kenneth M. (gen. ed.), The Crusades, 6 vols. (Madison, 1969-89)

Strickland, Debra Higgs, 'Monsters and Christian Enemies', History Today 50 (2000), 45-51.

Tyerman, Christopher, God's War: A New History of the Crusades (Harmondsworth, 2006)

Tyerman, Christopher, The Invention of the Crusades (Basingstoke, 1998)