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Referencing Example

This is an example that is designed to show the difference between plagiarising work, copying sections, quoting it and correctly using it as a reference.

It uses a section from page 92 of the book “Managing IT at Board Level”, by Kit Grindley

This would be regarded as plagiarism

(where the text is directly copied from the source with no reference to that source - this can result in a zero mark for the piece of work)

The smaller companies typically exhibit less decentralization of IT than large ones; and the role of the IT director tends to be more all-embracing therefore, covering not only IT strategy and planning, but also the provision of most of the data processing service, with responsibility for efficiency, levels of service and so on.

This would be regarded as a type of copying

(where the text is directly copied from the source, but there is a reference to that source - this can result in the copied section being ignored during the assessment)

The smaller companies typically exhibit less decentralization of IT than large ones; and the role of the IT director tends to be more all-embracing therefore, covering not only IT strategy and planning, but also the provision of most of the data processing service, with responsibility for efficiency, levels of service and so on [1].

This is quoting

(where the text is directly copied from the source, but it is referenced and clearly indicated with quotation marks and indentation that it is a direct quote - this is only used when it is impossible, or inappropriate for some reason, to re-word the section)

According to Grindley [1]:

“The smaller companies typically exhibit less decentralization of IT than large ones; and the role of the IT director tends to be more all-embracing therefore, covering not only IT strategy and planning, but also the provision of most of the data processing service, with responsibility for efficiency, levels of service and so on.”

You would generally choose to quote directly if you believe that any changes to the phrasing would change the meaning or effect intended by the original author. However, bear in mind that a careful paraphrase that does justice to the source (and is acknowledged – see below) is much more readable that a lengthy quotation.

This is correctly using a reference

According to Grindley [1], the IT directors in smaller companies tend to have a broader role than those in larger companies. This is attributed to the fact that there is less decentralisation in these smaller companies, which means that the IT directors have to cover a wider range of activities, ranging from strategy and planning to the provision of the data processing services.

1 Grindley, K; Managing IT at Board Level (Pitman, 1992), p 92

NOTE: Any diagrams used in submitted work that have originated from books/notes/journal articles etc must also be properly referenced.

Practical help

Students are recommneded to look at University PlagiarWISE tool