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Bibliography

Core handbooks

Millar, Fergus (1993) The Roman Near East, 31 BC – AD 337, Cambridge, MA [available as an e-book via the library website]

Ball, Warwick (2000) Rome in the East. The Transformation of an Empire, (second edition, 2016) [available as an e-book via the library website]

Sartre, Maurice (2005) The Middle East under Rome, Cambridge, MA [several hard copies available in the library and widely available to purchase for £20/£30]

Butcher, Kevin (2003) Roman Syria and the Near East, London [several hard copies available in the library]

  • This book is now out of print, but in order to make it available to students, Prof. Butcher has put up the draft text that was submitted for the original publication. Beware - this lacks the illustrations, and still contains some typos, but it's the next best thing to getting hold of a copy.

    Roman Syria, Section 1

    Section 2

    Section 3

    Section 4

    Bibliography to Roman Syria

General works

Alcock, S., The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997. DG 59.A2

Binst, O. (ed.), The Levant: History and Archaeology in the Eastern Mediterranean, Cologne, 1999. DS 62.1.L3

Bowersock, G., Roman Arabia, Cambridge, MA, 1983. DS 154.2.B6

Butcher, K., Roman Syria and the Near East, London, 2003. DG 59.S9

@Millar, F., The Roman Near East, Cambridge, MA, 1993.

Sartre, M., The Middle East Under Rome, Harvard, 2005. DS 62 1.S2 (1 copy in learning grid)

 

History

 

@Bowersock, G. ‘Syria under Vespasian’, Journal of Roman Studies 63 (1973), pp. 123-129.

Dignas, B., Winter, E., Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals, Cambridge, 2007.

Dodgeon, M.H., Lieu, S.N.C., The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, AD 226-363: A Documentary History, London, 1991.

Eadie, J 'One hundred years of rebellion: the eastern army in politics, AD 175-272', in D Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor, 1996: 136-151. U 35 R6 (quarto). Copies in Classics office.

Frye, R.N. The History of Ancient Iran, Munich, 1984.

Goodman, M., The Ruling Class of Judaea, Cambridge, 1987.

Greatrex, G., Rome and Persia at War, 502-532, Leeds, 1998.

Greatrex, G., Lieu, S.N.C., The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, II, AD 363-630: A Narrative Sourcebook, London, 2002.

Hermann, G., The Iranian Revival, Oxford, 1977.

Kennedy, D 'Parthia and Rome: eastern perspectives', in D Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor, 1996: 67-90. U 35 R6 (quarto). Copies in the Classics office.

Potter, D.S., Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the Roman Empire: A Historical Commentary on the Thirteenth Sybilline Oracle, Oxford, 1990.

Schürer, E., A History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, Edinburgh, 1973-1986.

Shahid, I., Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Washington, DC, 1984.

Shahid, I., Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, Washington, DC, 1995.

Stoneman, R., Palmyra and its Empire: Zenobia’s Revolt against Rome, Ann Arbor, 1994.

Weishöfer, J., Ancient Persia from 550 BC to 650 AD, London, 1996.

 

Government and political geography

 

@Balty, J.-Ch., ‘Apamea in Syria in the Second and Third Centuries AD’, Journal of Roman Studies 78 (1988), pp. 91-104.

Barnes, T., The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, Cambridge, MA, 1982.

Braund, D., Rome and the Friendly King, London, 1983.

Browning, I., Palmyra, London, 1979.

Downey, G., A History of Antioch in Syria, Princeton, 1961.

Freeman, P., 'The annexation of Arabia and imperial grand strategy', in D Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor, 1996: 91-118. U 35 R6 (quarto). Copies in the Classics office.

Holum, K., et al., King Herod’s Dream: Caesarea by the Sea, New York, 1988.

Jones, A.H.M., The Herods of Judaea, Oxford, 1938.

Jones, A.H.M., The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, Oxford, 1971.

Taylor, J., Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans, London, 2001.

 

The Syrian countryside

 

Bowersock, G., ‘Social and Economic History of Syria under the Roman Empire’, in J.-M. Dentzer, W. Orthmann (ed.), Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie II: la Syrie de l’époque achéménide à l’avènement de l’Islam, Saarbrücken 1989, pp. 63-80.

C. Foss, ‘The Near Eastern Countryside in Late Antiquity’, in J. Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East (Ann Arbor, 1995), pp. 213-34. Copies in the Classics office.

@Goodman, M., ‘Babatha’s Story’, Journal of Roman Studies 81 (1991), pp. 169-175.

Grainger, J., 'Village government in Roman Syria and Arabia', Levant 27 (1995): 179-195.

Greene, K., The Archaeology of the Roman Economy, London, 1986, at pp. 138-140.

Harper, G. M., 'Village administration in the Roman province of Syria', Yale Classical Studies I (1928): 105-168.

Heichelheim, F.M., ‘Roman Syria: The Land’, in T. Frank (ed.), An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, Baltimore, 1933-1940, vol. 4, pp. 127-157.

MacAdam, H. I., 'Epigraphy and village life in southern Syria during the Roman and early Byzantine periods', Berytus 31 (1983): 103-115.

MacAdam, H. I., 'Some aspects of Land Tenure and Social Development in the Roman Near East: Arabia, Phoenicia and Syria', in T. Khalidi (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East, Beirut, 1984: 45-62.

Pena, I., The Christian Art of Byzantine Syria, Reading, 1996.

Tate, G., ‘The Syrian Countryside’, in S. Alcock (ed.), The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997: 55-71.

 

Trade and the economy

 

Bowersock, G., ‘Social and Economic History of Syria under the Roman Empire’, in J.-M. Dentzer, W. Orthmann (ed.), Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie II: la Syrie de l’époque achéménide à l’avènement de l’Islam, Saarbrücken 1989, pp. 63-80. For a link, see above, under 'Syrian countryside'.

@Fulford, M., ‘Economic Interdependence among Urban Communities of the Roman Mediterranean’, World Archaeology 19 (1987), pp. 58-75 (available on line).

Heichelheim, F.M., ‘Roman Syria’, in T. Frank (ed.), An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, Baltimore, 1933-1940, vol. 4, pp. 121-257.

Kingsley, S., and Decker, M., Economy and Exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity, Oxford, 2001.

Millar F G B 'Caravan Cities: The Roman Near East and Long-Distance Trade', in F G B Millar, The Greek World, the Jews, and the East, Studies in the History of Greece and Rome, vol. 3, North Carolina, 2006: 275-299. Copies in the Classics Office. For a review of the volume, see http://www.classics.ukzn.ac.za/reviews/07-42mil.htm

Potts, D. T., 'Roman relations with the Persicus sinus from the rise of Spasinou Charax (127 BC) to the reign of Shapur II (309-379), in Alcock S. (ed.) The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997: 89-107. Available at http://www.academia.edu/1903712/Potts_1997_The_Roman_relationship_with_the_Persicus_sinus_from_the_rise

_of_Spasinou_Charax_127_BC_to_the_reign_of_Shapur_II_309-379_

@Young G Rome’s Eastern Trade: international trade and commerce and imperial policy, 31 BC – AD 305, London, 2001.

Phil Mills has prepared a bibliography on stone and pottery that can been accessed here.

Culture and Identity

Dunbabin, K M Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World, Cambridge, 1999 (2 copies in library, 1 in learning grid: NA 3760.D8; 1 in external store: 738.5093.DUN).

Kennedy, D, ‘The identity of Roman Gerasa: an archaeological approach’, Mediterranean Archaeology11 (1998): 39-69 (copies in Classics office).

Kennedy, D, ‘Greek, Roman and native cultures in the Roman Near East’, in J H Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East. Volume 2. Some Recent Archaeological Research, Portsmouth, R I, 1999: 76-106 (1 copy in library: DS 111.R56 Vol. 2). This is a review article of Millar’s book.

Millar F G B 'The Phoenician Cities: A Case-Study of Hellenisation, in F G B Millar, The Greek World, the Jews, and the East, Studies in the History of Greece and Rome, vol. 3, North Carolina, 2006: 32-50. Copies in the Classics Office. For a review of the volume, see http://www.classics.ukzn.ac.za/reviews/07-42mil.htm

Millar F G B 'Ethnic Identity in the Roman Near East, AD 325-450: Language, Religion, and Culture', in F G B Millar, The Greek World, the Jews, and the East, Studies in the History of Greece and Rome, vol. 3, North Carolina, 2006: 378-405. Copies in the Classics Office. For a review of the volume, see http://www.classics.ukzn.ac.za/reviews/07-42mil.htm

Millar, F ‘Narrative and Identity in Mosaics from the Late Roman Near East: Pagan, Jewish and Christian’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 225-256 (copies in Classics office).

Pollard, N, ‘Colonial and Cultural Identities in Parthian and Roman Dura-Europos’, in R Alston, S N C Lieu (eds.), Aspects of the Roman East, Turnhout, 2007: 81-101 (copies in file in Classics office; 1 copy in library: DS 62.1.A8).

Woolf, G, ‘Becoming Roman, Staying Greek: Culture, Identity and the Civilizing Process in the Roman East’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 40 (1994): 116-143.

Sartre, M, ‘The Nature of Syrian Hellenism in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Periods’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 25-49 (copies in Classics office).

Schmidt-Colinet, A, ‘Aspects of “Romanization”: The Tomb Architecture of Palmyra and its Decoration’, in S E Alcock, The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997: 157-177 (2 copies in library, one short loan: DG 59.A2).

Religion

General works:

R MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire, New Haven, 1981.

M Beard, J North (eds) Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World, London, 1990.

Syria:

H J W Drijvers, The Religion of Palmyra, Leiden, 1976.

J Elsner, ‘The Origins of the Icon: Pilgrimage, Religion and Visual Culture in the Roman East as “Resistance” to the Centre’, in S Alcock (ed.), The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997: 178-199.

T. Kaizer, The Religious Life of Palmyra, Stuttgart, 2002.

J Teixdor, The Pagan God: Popular Religion in the Ancient Near East, Princeton, 1977.

J Teixidor, The Pantheon of Palmyra, Leiden, 1979.

 

Military matters

 

Scharrer, U 'The problem of nomadic allies in the Roman Near East', in Kaizer T, Facella M (eds), Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East, Stuttgart 2010: 241-335. Acces it at http://www.academia.edu/1497846/The_Problem_of_Nomadic_Allies_in_the_Roman_Near_East

@Isaac, B., The Limits of Empire, Oxford, 1990, revised 1992.

Kennedy, D., ‘The East’, in J. Wacher (ed.), The Roman World, London, 1990, pp. 266-308. Access it online via course extracts link at the top right of this page.

Kennedy, D., The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor, 1996.

Kennedy, D., and Riley, D., Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air, London, 1990.

Pollard, N., Soldiers, Cities and Civilians in Roman Syria, Ann Arbor, 2000.

Sites

Androna

See the papers by M. Mundell Mango: http://www.arch.ox.ac.uk/ANDS-publications.html

Caesarea

A paper on King Herod's harbour works is to be found at: http://web.uvic.ca/~jpoleson/ROMACONS/Caesarea2005.htm

Petra

Amadasi Guzzo, M G, Equini Schneider, E, Petra, Munich, 1998 (1 copy in library: DS 110.7.G8 oversize).

Browning, I, Petra, London, 1982 (1 copy in library: DS 110.7.B7; 2 copies of 1989 edition in external store: 939.48). The book is a bit out of date now (many new discoveries and re-attribution and re-dating of old discoveries).

Khouri, R, Petra: A Guide to the Capital of the Nabataeans, London, 1986 (1 copy in library: DS 110.7.K4).

Khouri, R, Petra: A Brief Guide to the Antiquities, Amman, 1989 (1 copy in library: NA 245.P3, pamphlets).

McKenzie, J, The Architecture of Petra, Oxford, 1990 (1 copy in library, use in library only: NA 245.P3).

Taylor, J Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans, London, 2001 (1 copy in library: DS 110.7.T2 oversize; 1 copy in external store: 939.48 TAY).

Raphanea

The Deutsches Archäologisches Institut has been excavating at this site, which was a legionary base: http://www.dainst.org/en/project/raphaneae?ft=10

Zeugma

@Gawlikowski, M 'Thapsacus and Zeugma and the Crossing of the Euphrates in Antiquity', Iraq 58 (1996): 123-133.

 

ONLINE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Some of the items listed here have been made available online by the Library and can be accessed here