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Theme 4: Politics

How consistent was Philip II's policy towards the enemies of his empire?

  • S. Brakensiek, New Perspectives on State-Building and the Implementation of Rulership in Early Modern European Monarchies (2012)
  • A. Dominguez, The Golden Age of Spain (1971)
  • F. Fernandez-Armesto, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • J. I. Fortea Perez, ‘The Cortes of Castile and Philip II’s fiscal policy’, PER 11 (1991)
  • P. Limm, The Dutch Revolt 1559-1648 (1989)
  • J. Lynch, Spain under the Habsburgs, vol. 2 (1969 & 1981)
  • B. Martin & G. Parker, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • G. Parker, The Dutch Revolt (1977)
  • “ , Philip II (1978)
  • P. Pierson, Philip II of Spain (1975)
  • I. Thompson, War and Government in Habsburg Spain 1560-1620 (1976)
  • P. Williams, Philip II (2001)



To what extent did government change over the course of the Tudor period?

Henry VIII

  • G. W. Bernard, ‘Elton’s Cromwell’, History 83 (1998)
  • C. Coleman & D. Starkey (eds), Revolution Reassessed: Revisions in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986)
  • C. S. L. Davies, Peace, Print and Protestantism, 1450-1558 (1976)
  • G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (1953) [+ articles in P&P 25, 26, 29, 31 for the controversy generated by the Elton thesis]
  • “ , Reform and Reformation, England, 1509-1558 (1977)
  • M. Graves, Tudor Parliaments (1985)
  • S. Gunn, Early Tudor Government (1995)
  • “ , ‘The structures of politics in early Tudor England’, TRHS 2 (1995)
  • J. Loach, Parliament under the Tudors (1991)
  • D. MacCulloch, The Reign of Henry VIII (1995)
  • J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968)
  • D. Starkey, The Reign of Henry VIII (1985)
  • “ (ed.), Rivals in Power (1990)
  • G. Walker, Persuasive Factions in the Reign of Henry VIII (1995)

Elizabeth I

  • S. Adams, ‘Politics and Faction in Late Tudor England’, HT 32 (1982)
  • P. Collinson, ‘Puritans, Men of Business and Elizabethan Parliaments’, Parliamentary History 7 (1988) SLC and in his Elizabethan Essays (1994)
  • D. Dean, Law-Making and Society in Late Elizabethan England (1996), esp. conclusion
  • S. Doran; T. Freeman (eds), Myth of Elizabeth (2003)
  • G. R. Elton, ‘Parliament in the Sixteenth Century’ HJ 22 (1979) SLC [elaborated in his The Parliament of England (1986)]
  • M. A. R. Graves, Elizabethan Parliaments 1559-1601 (1987)
  • C. Haigh, Elizabeth I (1988)
  • “ (ed.), The Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1984)
  • T. E. Hartley, Elizabeth’s Parliaments 1559-1601 (1992)
  • S. Hindle, The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640 (2000)
  • J. E. Neale, Elizabeth and her Parliaments (1953/7)
  • A. G. R. Smith, The Government of Elizabethan England (1967)
  • P. Williams, The Tudor Regime (1979)
  • “ , The Later Tudors, England 1547-1603 (1995) esp. ch. 5

Why did France become embroiled in more than thirty years of civil war in the late sixteenth century?

  • P. Benedict, Rouen during the Wars of Religion (1981) esp. intro and conclusion
  • “ et al. (eds), Reformation, Revolt and Civil War in France and the Netherlands (1999)
  • K. Cameron et al (eds), The Adventure of Religious Pluralism in Early Modern France (2000)
  • N. Z. Davis, Society and Culture in Early Modern France (1975) ch. 6, ‘The Rites of Violence’, also in P& P 59 (1973) & debate in P&P 67 (1975) SLC
  • B. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in sixteenth-century Paris (1991)
  • M. Greengrass, The French Reformation (1987)
  • “ , ‘The Psychology of Religious Violence’, French History, 5 (1991), 467-74
  • “ , ‘France’ in Scribner (ed.), Reformation in National Context (1994)
  • “ , France in the Age of Henry IV (2nd edn, 1995)
  • H. Heller, Iron and Blood: Civil Wars in Sixteenth-Century France (1991)
  • M. P. Holt, The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle during the Wars of Religion (1986)
  • “ , ‘Putting Religion Back into the Wars of Religion’, French Historical Studies, 18 (1993), 524-51 SLC
  • “ , The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1629 (1995)
  • R. M. Kingdon, Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555-63 (1973)
  • R. J. Knecht, The French Wars of Religion (1989; updated 1995)
  • “ , Catherine de’ Medici (1998)
  • “ , The French Civil Wars (2000)
  • H.G. Koenigsberger, ‘The Organisation of Revolutionary Parties in France and the Netherlands during the sixteenth century’, JMH, 27 (1955) SLC & in his Estates and Revolutions
  • J. R. Major, ‘Noble Income and the Wars of Religion in France’, AHR, 86 (1981), 21-48 SLC
  • R. A. Mentzer & A. Spicer (eds), Society and Culture in the Huguenot World 1559-1685 (2002)
  • D. Potter, The French Wars of Religion: Selected Documents (1997)
  • P. Roberts, A City in Conflict: Troyes during the French Wars of Religion (1996)
  • “ , ‘The Conflict over Sites for Reformed Worship in Sixteenth-Century France’, ARG 89 (1998), 247-67
  • “ , The French Wars of Religion (Hist.Assoc. 1999)
  • J. H. M. Salmon, The French Wars of Religion: How important were religious factors? (1967)
  • “ , Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century (1975)
  • A. Soman (ed.), The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew (1974)
  • N. M. Sutherland, The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew and the European Conflict, 1559-72 (1973)
  • “ , The Huguenot Struggle for Recognition (1980)

Account for the economic [OR: political] success of the Dutch Republic.

Dutch economy

  • M. Aymard (ed.), Dutch Capitalism and World Capitalism (1982)
  • V. Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century (1950)
  • F. Braudel, ‘The city-centred economies of the European past: Amsterdam’, in his The Perspective of the World. Civilisation and Capitalism, vol. 3 (1984)
  • D. Ormrod, The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism 1650-1770 (2003)
  • J. De Vries & A. Van den Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure and Preservation of the Dutch Economy, 1500-1815 (1997)
  • J. L. van Zanden, The Rise and Decline of Holland’s Economy (1993)

Dutch Politics

  • P.Geyl, The Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century, 2 vols. (1961/4)
  • " ,'Historical appreciations of the Holland regime' in his History of the Low Countries (1964), or in A.Sarkissian (ed.), Studies in Diplomatic History (1961)
  • M. C. Hart, The Making of a Bourgeois State (1993)
  • J. L. Price, Holland and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century (1994)
  • H. H. Rowen (ed.), The Low Countries in Early Modern Times: a Documentary History (1972), esp. nos 27-28, 33-34, 37-42
  • H. Schilling, ‘The Netherlands and modernisation theory,’ in his Religion, Political Culture and Early Modern Society (1992)
  • I. Schöffer, ‘Did Holland’s Golden Age coincide with a period of crisis?’, Acta Historica Nederlandica 1 (1966)
  • K. W. Swart, William of Orange and the Revolt of the Netherlands 1572-84 (2003)
  • Sir W. Temple, Observations upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands [1668], ed. G. N. Clark (1932)
  • J. G. van Dillen, ‘Amsterdam’s role in seventeenth-century Dutch politics,’ in J. Bromley & E. Kossmann (eds), Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 2 (1964)

What was the socio-economic impact of the Thirty Years' War on Germany?

General studies of the Thirty Years’ War

  • R. G. Asch, The Thirty Years War (1997)
  • G. Benecke (ed.), The Thirty Years War (1978)
  • R. Birely, ‘Germany’s religious war’, and J. H. Elliott, ‘Spain’s foreign policy’, both in K. Repgen (ed.), Krieg und Politik 1618-48 (1988), see Elliott, Spain and its World (1989)
  • “ , The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War (2003)
  • R. Bonney, The Thirty Years’ War (2002)
  • K. Bussmann & H. Schilling (eds), 1648: War and Peace in Europe (2 vols, 1998)
  • D. Croxton; A. Tischer, Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary (2001)
  • R. J. W. Evans & T. V. Thomas (eds), Central European Politics in the 16th and 17th centuries (1992), esp. ch. 10, 14, 15
  • M. P. Gutman, ‘The Origins of the Thirty Years War’, J.Interdisc.H. 18 (1988) SLC
  • J. Israel, ‘A Conflict of Empires: Spain and the Netherlands 1614-48, P&P 76 (1977) SLC
  • H. Koenigsberger, ch. in H. R. Trevor-Roper (ed.), The Age of Expansion (1968)
  • H. Langer, The Thirty Years War (1980)
  • S. J. Lee, The Thirty Years War (1991)
  • P. Limm, The Thirty Years War (1984)
  • S. Murdoch (ed.), Scotland and the Thirty Years' War: 1618-1648 (2001)
  • T. Osborne, Dynasty and Diplomacy in the Court of Savoy: Political Culture & the Thirty Years’ War (2002)
  • G. Pages, The Thirty Years War (1971)
  • J. V. Polisensky, The Thirty Years War (1971)
  • B. Pursell, Frederick V and the Coming of the Thirty Years War (2003)
  • T. Rabb, The Thirty Years War (1982 or earlier edn)
  • M. Roberts, ‘The political objectives of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany’, TRHS 7 (1957), also in his Essays in Swedish History SLC
  • H. Rowen, ‘The Peace of Westphalia revisited’, JMH 33 (1961)
  • S. H. Steinberg, The Thirty Years War (1966)
  • N. M. Sutherland, ‘The Origins of the Thirty Years War’, EHR 107 (1992)

Impact on Germany

  • G. Benecke, ‘The Problem of Death and Destruction’, European Stud. Rev. 2 (1972)
  • G. Franz, Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das deutsche Volk (1961 or 1978 edn)
  • C. R. Friedrichs, Urban Society in an Age of War: Nördlingen, 1580-1720 (1979)
  • H. Kamen, ‘Social and economic consequences of the Thirty Years War’, P&P 39 (1968) SLC
  • T. McIntosh, ‘Urban demographic stagnation in early modern Germany: a simulation’ Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31 (2001)
  • S. Ogilvie (ed.), Germany: A New Social and Economic History, vol. 2 (1996), esp. ch. 8
  • G. Parker (ed.), The Thirty Years War (1984; revised edn. 1996)
  • T. Rabb (ed.), ‘The effects of the Thirty Years War on the German economy’, JMH 34 (1962) SLC
  • H. Slicher van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe (1963), 206-20
  • J. Theibault, ‘The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War’, J.Soc.H. 27 (1993)
  • P. Wilson, From Reich to Revolution: German History 1558-1806 (2004)

'Too long-drawn-out to be called "revolutionary"'. Is this true of the military changes of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

Armies

  • J. Black, European Warfare 1453-1815 (1999)
  • J. Childs, Armies and Warfare in Europe 1649-1789 (1982)
  • I. Gentles, The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland 1645-1653 (1992)
  • B. Hall, Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe (1997), ch. 7
  • C. Duffy, Siege Warfare: The Fortress... 1450-1700 (1979)
  • J. A. Lynn, ‘Tactical evolution in the French army, 1560-1660,’ French Historical Studies 14 (1985) SLC
  •  “ , Giant of the Grand Siècle. The French Army 1610-1715 (1997)
  • D. A. Parrott, ‘French military organization in the 1630s,’ Seventeenth Century French Studies 9 (1987)
  • G. Rowlands, The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest (2002)
  • I. A. A. Thompson, War and Government in Habsburg Spain (1976)

Navies

  • B. Capp, Cromwell’s Navy: The Fleet and the English Revolution, 1648-1660 (1989)
  • F. Fernandez-Armesto, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • J. Glete, Navies and Nations (1993)
  • R. Harding, Seapower and Naval Warfare, 1650-1830 (1999)
  • A. C. Hess, ‘The battle of Lepanto in Mediterranean history’, P&P 27 (1967) SLC
  • A. James, ‘The Development of French Naval Policy in the Seventeenth Century: Richelieu’s Early Aims and Ambitions’, French History 12 (1998); see also his essays in Cameron et al (eds), The Adventure of Religious Pluralism in Early Modern France (2000), and Mentzer & Spicer (eds), Society and Culture in the Huguenot World (2002)
  • C. Martin & G. Parker, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • R. A. Stradling, The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War 1568-1668 (1992)

 The 'military revolution' debate

  • A. Ayton; J. Price (eds), The Medieval Military Revolution: State, Society and Military Change (1995)
  • J. Black, A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550-1800 (1990)
  • D. Croxton, ‘The Military Revolution: Strategy … in the Thirty Years War’, War In History 5 (1998)
  • B. M. Downing, The Military Revolution and Political Change (1991)
  • M. Duffy (ed.), The Military Revolution and the State 1500-1800 (1980)
  • D. Eltis, The Military Revolution in Sixteenth-Century Europe (1995)
  • A. James, ‘Warfare and the Rise of the State’, in M. Hughes and W.J. Philpott (eds), Palgrave advances in Modern Military History (2006)
  • J. Luh, Ancien Régime Warfare and the Miilitary Revolution: a Study (2000)
  • W. M. MacGregor Knox (ed.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (2001)
  • J. A. Mear, ‘The Thirty Years War ... and the origins of a standing … army,’ Central Europ. H. 21 (1988)
  • G. Parker, ‘The “Military Revolution” 1560-1660: a Myth?’ JMH 48 (1976) SLC
  • “ , The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West 1500-1800 (1988 & 1996)
  • D. Parrott, ‘The military revolution in early modern Europe’, HT 42 xii (1992) SLC
  • M. Poe, ‘The military revolution, administrative development and cultural change in early modern Russia’, JEMH 2 (1998)
  • M. Roberts, ‘The Military Revolution 1560-1660,’ in his Essays in Swedish History (1967)
  • C. J. Rogers (ed.), The Military Revolution Debate (1995)
  • B. Storrs & H. Scott, ‘The Military Revolution & the European nobility 1600-1800’, War in History 3 (1996)
  • J. Wheeler, The Making of a World Power: War and Military Revolution in 17th century England (1999)

How far did Louis XIV's royal image compensate for the limitations on his power?

General works on seventeenth-century France

  • W. Beik, Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth Century France (1985)
  • Y. M. Bercé, The Birth of Absolutism, 1598-1661 (1995)
  • R. J. Bonney, ‘The state and its revenues in ancien regime France’, Hist. Research 65 (1992)
  • “ , The Limits of Absolutism in Ancien Regime France (1995)
  • R. Briggs, Early Modern France, 1560-1715 (1977)
  • “ , ‘Noble conspiracy and revolt in France, 1610-60,’ Seventeenth-Century French Studies 12 (1990)
  • P. R. Campbell, The Ancien Regime in France (1988)
  • J. B. Collins, The State in Early Modern France (1995)
  • P.J. Coveney, France in Crisis, 1620-75 (1977)
  • P. Deyon, ‘The French nobility and absolute monarchy,’ in Kierstead, State and Society
  • W. Doyle (ed.), Old Regime France (2001)
  • A. James, The Origins of French Absolutism, 1598-1661 (2006)
  • S. Kettering, Patrons, Brokers and Clients in Seventeenth Century France (1986)
  • “ , French Society 1589-1715 (2001)
  • F. Kierstead (ed.), State and Society in Seventeenth Century France (1975)
  • M. S. Kimmel, Absolutism and its Discontents (1987)
  • E. Le Roy Ladurie, The “Ancien Regime”: A History of France, 1610-1774 (1996)
  • R. Mettam, ‘The French nobility, 1610-1715,’ in H. M. Scott (ed.), The European Nobilities (1995)
  • D. Parker, ‘Huguenots in seventeenth-century France,’ in A. Hepburn (ed.), Minorities in History (1978)
  • “ , Class and State in Early Modern France: The Road to Modernity? (1996)
  • “ , The Making of French Absolutism (1983)
  • J. Russell Major, Representative Government in Early Modern France (1980), ch. 17
  • J. H. Salmon, ‘Venal office and popular sedition,’ P&P 37 (1967) SLC
  • J. M. Smith, ‘“Our Sovereign’s Gaze”. Kings, nobles and state formation in seventeenth century France’, French Hist. Stud. 18 (1993)
  • F. Tallett, ‘Church, state, war and finance in early modern France,’ Ren. & Med. Stud. 36 (1993)

Louis XIV

Biographies

F. Bluche (trans. 1990), P. R. Campbell (1993), H.G. Judge (1965), R. Mousnier (1974), J. H. Shennan (1986), D. Sturdy (1998), G. Treasure (2001), J. B. Wolf (1968); R. Wilkinson (2007)

Further Reading

  • Y. M. Bercé, Revolt and Revolution in Early Modern Europe (1988)
  • P. Blet, ‘Louis XIV et le Saint-Siège,’ XVIIe Siècle 31 (1979)
  • R. J. Bonney, ‘Absolutism: what’s in a name?’, French History 1 (1987) SLC
  • R. Briggs, ‘The Catholic Puritans: Jansenists and Rigorists in France’, in Pennington & Thomas (eds), Puritans and Revolutionaries (1978) and Briggs, Communities of Belief
  • P. Burke, The Fabrication of Louis XIV (1992)
  • W. F. Church, The Greatness of Louis XIV, Myth or Reality? (1972)
  • J. Duindam, Myths of Power: Norbert Elias and the Early Modern Court (1995)
  • N. Elias, The Court Society (1983)
  • P. Goubert, Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (trans. 1970)
  • R. Hatton, Louis XIV and Absolutism (1976)
  • “ ‘At the court of the Sun King’, in Dickens (ed.), Courts of Europe (1977)
  • M.P. Holt (ed.), Society and Institutions in Early Modern France (1991), chap. 11
  • J. J. Hurt, Louis XIV and the Parlements: The Assertion of Royal Authority (2002)
  • C. Jones, France: Louis XIV to Napoleon (2002)
  • E. Le Roy Ladurie, ‘Versailles observed,’ in his Mind and Method of the Historian (1981)
  • A. Lossky, Louis XIV and the French Monarchy (1994)
  • L. Martin, The Portrait of the King (1988)
  • R. Mettam, Power and Faction in Louis XIV’s France (1987)
  • “ (ed.), Government and Society in Louis XIV’s France (1977)
  • D. Parker, ‘Absolutism, feudalism and property rights in the France of Louis XIV’, P&P 179 (2003)
  • M. Prestwich (ed.), International Calvinism, 1541-1715 (1985), chaps. 10, 12
  • G. Rowlands, The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest (2002)
  • J.C. Rule (ed.), Louis XIV and the Craft of Kingship (1969), esp. chs by Judge, Rule & Moote
  • “ , ‘The King in his Council: Louis XIV’, in Oresko et al (eds), Sovereignty (1997)
  • P. Sonnino (ed.), The Reign of Louis XIV (1990), esp. essays by Rule and Grever
  • C. Tilly, The Contentious French (1986)
  • A. Trout, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1978)

Were Charles I's problems 'entirely of his own making'?

Early Stuart Period 1603-40

  • T. Cogswell et al (eds), Politics, Religion and Popularity: Early Stuart Essays (2002)
  • P. Collinson, The Birthpangs of Protestant England (1988)
  • P. Croft, King James (2002)
  • R. Cust, Charles I: A Political Life (2005)
  • J. Davies, The Caroline Captivity of the Church, 1625-41 (1992)
  • C. Durston, James I (1993)
  • K. Fincham (ed.), The Early Stuart Church (1993)
  • R. Lockyer, Buckingham (1981)
  • B. Quintrell, Charles I 1625-40 (1993)
  • C. Russell, Parliaments and English Politics 1621-29 (1979)
  • K. Sharpe (ed.), Faction and Parliament: Early Stuart History (1978)
  • “ , The Personal Rule of Charles I (1992)
  • A.G.R. Smith (ed.), The Reign of James VI and I (1973)
  • H.R. Trevor-Roper, Catholics, Anglicans and Puritans (1987)
  • N. Tyacke, Anti-Calvinists: the Rise of English Arminianism c.1590-1640 (1987)
  • A. Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 1625-1660 (2002)

Causes of the Civil War

  • J. Adamson, ‘The English context of the British Civil Wars’, HT 48 xi (1998)
  • G. Burgess, ‘The Divine Right of Kings Reconsidered’, EHR 107 (1992)
  • J. Hexter, ‘Power Struggle, Parliament and Liberty in early Stuart England’, JMH 50 (1978) SLC
  • C. Hill, ‘Parliament and People in 17th century England’, P&P 92 (1981)
  • “ , ‘The Early Stuarts and Parliament’, Parliamentary History 1 (1982) SLC
  • A. Hughes, The Causes of the Civil War (1991)
  • “ & R. Cust (eds), Conflict in Stuart England, 1603-42 (1989)
  • A. Macinnes; J. Ohlmeyer (eds), The Stuart Kingdoms in the 17thC: Awkward Neighbours (2002)
  • P. Marshall, Reformation England 1480-1642 (2003), ch. 8
  • J. Morrill, ‘The Religious Context of the English Civil War’, TRHS 34 (1984) SLC
  • J. Plumb, ‘The Growth of the Electorate in England’, P&P 45 (1969)
  • T. K. Robb & D. Hirst, ‘Revisionism Revised: Early Stuart Parliamentary History’, P&P 92 (1981) SLC
  • C. Russell, ‘Parliamentary History in Perspective 1604-29’, History 61 (1976)
  • “ (ed.), The Origins of the English Civil War (1973)
  • “ , ‘The British Problem and the English Civil War’, History 72 (1987) SLC
  • “ , The Causes of the English Civil War (1990)
  • “ , Unrevolutionary England 1603-42 (1990)
  • “ , The Fall of the British Monarchies 1637-42 (1991)
  • J. P. Sommerville, Politics & Ideology in England 1603-40 (1986)
  • L. Stone, The Causes of the English Revolution 1529-1642 (1986 edn)
  • M. Todd (ed.), Reformation to Revolution (1995)
  • H. Tomlinson (ed.), Before the Civil War (1983)
  • H.R. Trevor-Roper, ‘The Continuity of the English Revolution’, TRHS (6) 1 (1991)
  • J. Wormald, ‘James VI and I: Two Kings or One?’, History 68 (1983)

Civil war and revolution 1642-9

  • G. Aylmer, Rebellion or Revolution? England 1640-50 (1986)
  • R. Cust & A. Hughes (eds), The English Civil War (1997)
  • A. Fletcher, The Outbreak of the English Civil War (1981)
  • B. Manning, The English People and the English Revolution (2nd edn, 1991)
  • J. Morrill, The Revolt of the Provinces (1976 & 1980)
  • “ (ed.), Reactions to the English Civil War (1982)
  • “ (ed.), The Impact of the Civil War (1991)
  • “ (ed.), The Nature of the English Revolution (1993)
  • I. Roots, The Great Rebellion 1642-60 (1966)

How revolutionary was the 'Glorious Revolution' of 1688-9?

Restoration and Charles II

  • J.Coffey, Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1588-1689 (2000)
  • L.K.J. Glassey (ed.), The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II (1995)
  • K.H.D. Haley, Politics in the Reign of Charles II (1985)
  • T. Harris, Politics under the Later Stuarts (1992)
  • London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II: Propaganda and Politics (1987)
  • T. Harris, P. Seaward & M. Goldie, The Politics of Religion in Restoration England (Oxford, 1990)
  • G. Holmes, Religion and Party in late Stuart England (1975)
  • The Making of a Great Power (1993) [good starting point]
  • R. Hutton, The Restoration, 1658-67 (1985)
  • J.R. Jones (ed.), The First Whigs (1961)
  • N. Keeble, The Restoration (2002)
  • M. Knights, Politics and Opinion in Crisis 1678-1681 (1994)
  • J. Miller, ‘Charles II and his Parliaments’, TRHS 32 (1982)
  • “ ‘The Potential for Absolutism in later Stuart England’, History (1984) 187-207
  • Restoration England (1991)
  • An English Absolutism? The Later Stuart Monarchy (1993)
  • After the Civil Wars (2000)
  • S. Pincus and A. Houston, A Nation Transformed: England after the Restoration (2001)
  • J. Scott, Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis 1677-1683 (1991)
  • P. Seaward, The Restoration 1660-68 (1991)
  • J. Spurr, The Restoration Church of England 1646-1689 (1991)
  • J.R. Western, Monarchy and Revolution: the English State in the 1680s (1972)
  • P. Withington, 'Views from the Bridge: Revolution and Restoration in Seventeenth-Century York, P&P, 170 (2001), 121-51

Glorious Revolution

  • R. Beddard (ed), The Revolutions of 1688 (1991)
  • J. Black, ‘The Glorious Revolution and English Foreign Policy’, in PER 11 (1991)
  • J. Childs, The Army, James II and the Glorious Revolution (1980)
  • R. Clifton, The Last Popular Rebellion 1685 (1985)
  • H. Dickinson, 'How Revolutionary was the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688?' British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 11 (1988), 125-42
  • E. Cruickshanks (ed), By Force or by Default? The Revolution of 1688-89 (1989)
  • O.P. Grell (ed.), From Persecution to Toleration: the Glorious Revolution and Religion (1991)
  • G. Harrison, ‘Prerogative and the Glorious Revolution’, PER 10 (1990) SLC
  • J. Israel, The Anglo-Dutch Moment: the Glorious Revolution and its World Impact (1990)
  • J.R. Jones, The Revolution of 1688 in England (1972)
  • “ (ed.), Liberty Secured? Britain before and after 1688 (1992)
  • M. Knights, Representation and Misrepresentation in Later Stuart Britain: Partisanship and Political Culture (2005)
  • A. McInnes, ‘When was the English Revolution?’, History 67 (1982) SLC
  • J. Miller, The Glorious Revolution (1983)
  • “ ‘The Glorious Revolution: "Contract" and "Abdication" Reconsidered’, Historical Journal (1982), 541-55
  • M. Mullett, James II: English Politics 1678-88 (1993)
  • L. Schwoerer (ed), The Revolution of 1688/9: Changing Perspectives (1992)
  • P. Slaughter, ‘"Abdicate" and "Contract" in the Glorious Revolution’, Historical Journal (1981), 323-37
  • W. Speck, Reluctant Revolutionaries (1988)
  • C. Wilson et al, ‘1688: Britain, the Netherlands, and the Glorious Revolution’, HT 38(1988) SLC

William III and Anne 1689-1714

  • J. Brewer, The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783 (1989)
  • J. Champion, ‘Political Thinking between the Restoration and Hanoverian Succession’ in B. Coward (ed.), A Companion to Stuart Britain (2003)
  • J.C.D. Clark, English Society, 1660-1832: Religion, Ideology and Politics during the Ancien Regime (2000, edn)
  • A. Claydon, William III and the Godly Revolution (1996)
  • L. Davison, T. Hitchcock, T. Keirn & R. B. Shoemaker (eds), Stilling the grumbling hive: the response to social and economic problems in England 1689-1750 (1992)
  • G. De Krey, A Fractured Society: The Politics of London in the First Age of Party 1688-1715 (1985)
  • D. Hayton, ‘Moral Reform and Country Politics in the late Seventeenth Century House of Commons’, P&P, 128 (1990), 48-89 [JStor]
  • G.S. Holmes (ed.), Britain after the Glorious Revolution (1969)
  • L. Klein, ‘Coffee-house Civility, 1660-1714: An Aspect of Post-Courtly Culture in England’, Huntington Library Quarterly, 59 (1997), 30-51
  • M. Knights, ‘Politics after the Glorious Revolution’, in B. Coward (ed.), A Companion to Stuart Britain (2003)
  • Representation and Misrepresentation in Later Stuart Britain: Partisanship and Political Culture (2005)
  • P. McDowell, The Women of Grub Street. Press, Politics and Gender in the London Literary Marketplace 1678-1730 (1998)
  • D. North & B. Weingast, ‘Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of institutions governing public choice in C17th England’, JEconH (1989)
  • W.A. Pettigrew, ‘Free to Enslave: Politics and the Escalation of Britain’s Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1688-1714’, The William and Mary Quarterly (2007)
  • J.H. Plumb, The Growth of Political Stability in England 1675-1725 (1967)
  • H. Smith, ‘English "Feminist" Writing and Judith Drake's An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex (1696)’, HJ, 44 (2001), 727-47
  • W. Speck, ‘England in the 1690s: the fiscal-military state’, The Historian 38 (1993) SLC
  • P. Springborg, Mary Astell: Theorist of Freedom from Domination (2005)
  • R.Weil, Political Passions: Gender, the family and political argument in England 1680-1714 (1999)
  • D. Zaret, ‘Religion and the Rise of Liberal-Democratic Ideology in 17-Century England’, American Sociological Review, 54 (1989), 163-79

'A disaster for Russia'. Discuss this view of the reign of Peter the Great.

Biographical and General

  • M. S. Anderson, Peter the Great (1978 & 1995; and Hist. Assoc.: 1969 & 1981)
  • “ , ‘Russia under Peter the Great’, NCMH, vol. 6, ch. 21
  • E. Anisimov, The Reforms of Peter the Great. Progress through Violence in Russia (1992)
  • J. E. Cracraft, Peter the Great Changes Russia (1991)
  • The Petrine Revolution in Russian Culture (2004)
  • P. Bushkovitch, Peter the Great. The Struggle for Power (2001)
  • S. Dixon, The Modernisation of Russia, 1676-1825 (1999)
  • P. Dukes, The Making of Russian Absolutism 1613-1801 (1982 & 1991)
  • C. Dunning, ‘Does Jack Goldstone’s model of early modern state crises apply to Russia?’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 39 (1997) [JStor]
  • P. Englund, The Battle that Shook Europe: Poltava and the Birth of the Russian Empire (2003)
  • M. Florinsky, Russia: a History (1953), vol. 1, chs 12-15
  • J. M. Hartley, A Social History of the Russian Empire, 1650-1825 (1998)
  • L. Hughes, Russia in the Age of Peter the Great (1998)
  • “ , Peter the Great (2002)
  • V. Klyuchevsky, Peter the Great (1965) [Also in his History of Russia, vol. 4]
  • A. Lentin, Russia in the Eighteenth Century (1973)
  • P. Longworth, ‘The emergence of absolutism in Russia’, in Miller (ed.), Absolutism (1990)
  • A Pavlov, M. Perrie, Ivan the Terrible (2003)
  • R. Pipes, Russia under the Old Regime (1974), chap. 5
  • M. Raeff, Understanding Imperial Russia (1984)
  • N. U. Riasonovsky, A History of Russia (1984 or 1993 edn)
  • D. Shaw, ‘The geography of state building and social reform in Peter the Great’s Russia’, Political Geography 18 (1999) [use ‘Science Direct’ database through ‘Journals’ section of UL website]
  • B. H. Sumner, Peter the Great and the Emergence of Russia (1951)
  • B. Taylor, Politics and the Russian Army: Civil-Military Relations 1689-2000 (2003)

Further Reading

  • S. Blanc, ‘The economic policy of Peter the Great’, in Blackwell (ed.), Russian Economic Development (1974)
  • J. Cracraft, The Petrine Revolution in Russian Architecture (1988)
  • The Petrine Revolution in Russian Imagery (1998)
  • I. De Madariaga, ‘The Russian nobility’, in Scott, European Nobilities, vol. 2 (1995)
  • S. Dixon, The Modernisation of Russia, 1676-1825 (1999)
  • C. Duffy, Russia’s Military Way to the West (1981)
  • P. Dukes, ‘Crown and nobility before 1762’, in his Catherine the Great and the Russian Nobility (1967)
  • A. Gerschenkron, Europe in the Russian Mirror (1970)
  • R.E. Jones, Emancipation of the Russian Nobility (1973), 3-38
  • A. Kahan, The Plow, the Hammer and the Knot. An Economic History of Eighteenth Century Russia (1985)
  • J.L. H. Keep, Soldiers of the Tsar, Army and Society (1985), chs 5-6
  • J.P. LeDonne, Absolutism and the Ruling Class: the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825 (1991)
  • J.M. Letiche (ed.), History of Russian Economic Thought (1964), ch. 11
  • L.R. Lewitter, ‘Peter the Great, Poland and the westernisation of Russia’, Jnl Hist. of Ideas 19 (1958) SLC
  • “ ‘Russia, Poland and the Baltic, 1697-1721’, HJ 11 (1968) SLC
  • “ ‘Peter the Great and the modern world’, HT 35 (Feb. 1985)
  • B. Meehan-Waters, Autocracy and Aristocracy: the Russian Service Elite (1982)
  • M. Rady, Russia, Poland and the Ukraine, 1462-1725 (1990)
  • M. Raeff, Peter the Great Changes Russia (2nd edn, 1972)
  • Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia - the Eighteenth Century Nobility (1960)
  • D. Wallace, ‘Entrepreneurship and the Russian textile industry: From Peter the Great to Catherine the Great’, Russian Review 54 (1995) [JStor]

'A dynasty built on military despotism'. Is this a fair judgement on the rise of the Hohenzollern in Brandenburg-Prussia?

  • O. Busch, Military Systems and Social Life in Old Regime Prussia 1713-1807 (1997)
  • F.L. Carsten, ‘The Great Elector and the foundation of the Hohenzollern despotism’, EHR 65 (1950) SLC
  • “ , The Origins of Prussia (1954)
  • “ , ‘Prussian despotism at its height’, History 40 (1955) SLC; also in his Essays in German History (1985)
  • “ , The History of the Prussian Junkers (1989)
  • C. Clark, The Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600-1947 (2006)
  • P.G. Dwyer (ed.), The Rise of Prussia, 1700-1830 (2001), vol. 1
  • S.B. Fay, The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia to 1786 (1964)
  • L. & M. Frey, Frederick I (1984)
  • I. Gagliardo, Germany under the Old Regime, 1600-1790 (1991)
  • R.L. Gawthrop, Pietism and the Making of Eighteenth-Century Prussia (1993)
  • W.W. Hagen, ‘Seventeenth-century crisis in Brandenburg’, AHR 94 (1989) SLC
  • H. Holborn, A History of Modern Germany, vol. 2: 1648-1840 (1964)
  • H.W. Koch, A History of Prussia (1978)
  • “ , ‘Brandenburg-Prussia’, in Miller (ed.), Absolutism (1990)
  • D. McKay, The Great Elector (2001)
  • E. Melton, ‘Gutsherrschaft in east Elbian Germany’, Central European Hist. 21 (1988) and cf. NCMH, vol. 7, ch. 13
  • “ , ‘The Prussian Junkers’, in Scott (ed.), European Nobilities, vol. 2 (1995)
  • H. Rosenberg, Bureaucracy, Aristocracy and Autocracy, 1660-1815 (1958), chs 1-4
  • M. Shennan, The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia (1995)
  • P.H. Wilson, ‘Social Militarization in Eighteenth-Century Germany’, German History 18 (2000)

What did Sweden's 'greatness' in the seventeenth century owe to the qualities of its rulers?

  • I. Anderson, History of Sweden (1956)
  • R. I. Frost, The Northern Wars: War, State, and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 (2000)
  • C. Hallendorff & A. Schück, History of Sweden (1929)
  • R .M. Hatton, Charles XII of Sweden (1968 & Hist. Assoc. 1974)
  • E. Heckscher, Economic History of Sweden (1954)
  • L. Jespersen (ed.), A Revolution from Above? The Power State of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Scandinavia (2000)
  • D. Kirby, Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period (1990)
  • P. Lockhart, Sweden in the Seventeenth Century (2003)
  • M. Metcalf (ed.), The Riksdag. A History of the Swedish Parliament (1987)
  • E. Österberg, ‘Patterns of contact between local peasant communities and the state: Sweden’, in Lundohl & Svensson (eds), Agrarian Society in History (1990)
  • P. Piirimäe, ‘The legitimation of Swedish intervention in the 30-years-War’, HJ 45 (2002)
  • M. Roberts, ‘The abdication of Queen Christina’, HT 4 (1954)
  • “ , On Aristocratic Constitutionalism in Swedish History, 1520-1720 (1960)
  • “ , Essays in Swedish History (1966)
  • “ (ed.) , Sweden’s Age of Greatness (1973)
  • “ , Gustavus Adolphus and the Rise of Sweden (1973 & 1992)
  • S. Troebst, ‘Debating the Mercantile Background to Early Modern Swedish Empire Building’, Eur.Hist.Quarterly 24 (1994)
  • A. Upton, ‘The establishment of absolutism in Sweden’, EHR 102 (1987)
  • “ , ‘The Swedish Nobility’, in Scott, European Nobilities, vol. 2 (1995)
  • “ , Charles XI and Swedish Absolutism (1998)
  • “ , ‘Absolutism and the rule of law: Karl XI of Sweden’, PER 8 (1988)