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Cultural Developments

1. To what extent did the ‘Scientific Revolution’ lead to the erosion of religious belief?

  • H. Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science 1300-1800 (1957)
  • I. B. Cohen, The Newtonian Revolution (1980), chs 1-3
  • “ , Revolutions in Science (1985), chs 1-2, 7-8, 10-11
  • P. Dear (ed.), The Scientific Enterprise in Early Modern Europe (1996)
  • A. R. Hall, The Scientific Revolution 1500-1800 (1962), chs 1-4, 6, 8-9
  • “ , From Galileo to Newton (1981)
  • “ , The Revolution in Science 1500-1750 (1983), chs 1, 2, 4-8
  • M. Hunter, Science and Society in Reformation England (1987), chs 1-3, 7
  • M. C. Jacob, Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution (1989)
  • “ , Newton and the Culture of Newtonianism (1995)
  • A. Koyré, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (1957), chs 2-5, 9
  • D. C. Lindberg, Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (1990) chs 1, 11, 13
  • R. K. Merton, Science Technology and Society in seventeenth century England (1938; 1970), also in Osiris 4 (1938) [Science Periodicals]
  • R. C. Olby (ed.), Companion to the History of Modern Science (1990), chs by Henry, Tammy, Schaffer, Schuster
  • K. R. Popper, The Logic of Discovery (1959 & 1992)
  • R. Porter, ‘The Scientific Revolution: a spoke in the wheel?’, in his & M. Teich (eds), Revolution in History (1988)
  • “ (ed.), The Scientific Revolution in National Context (1992)
  • G. Pumfrey et al. (eds), Science, Culture and Popular Belief in Renaissance Europe (1991), essays by Rossi, Pumfrey, Slawinski
  • S. Shapin, ‘The house of experiment in seventeenth-century England’, Isis 79 (1988)

2. Can printing be regarded as a ‘revolutionary’ force in Renaissance and Reformation Europe?

  • B. Capp, Astrology and the Popular Press: English almanacs 1500-1800 (1979)
  • R. Chartier, Culture of Print: Power and Uses of Print in Early Modern France (1989)
  • M. Chrisman, Lay Culture, Learned Culture (1980)
  • R. Cole, ‘Sixteenth century travel books,’ Amer.Philosoph.Soc.Proceedings 116 (1972)
  • W. A. Coupe, The Illustrated Broadsheet in Seventeenth Century Germany (1966/7)
  • “ , German Political Satires, Part 1, 1500-1800, 2 vols (1993)
  • D. Cressy, Literacy and the Social Order in Tudor and Stuart England (1988)
  • R. Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre (1984), chapter on ‘Peasants tell tales’
  • P. Grendler, Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning (1989)
  • J. R. Hale, ‘Printing and the military culture of Renaissance Venice’, in Medievalia et Humanistica 8 (1977); also in his Renaissance War Studies (1983)
  • S. Hindman (ed.), Printing the Written Word 1450-1520 (1991), ch. 7, 9
  • R. Hirsch, Printing, Selling and Reading, 1450-1550 (1967 & 1978)
  • A. Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (1999)
  • M. McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographical Man (1962)
  • H-J. Martin, The French Book: Religion, Absolutism and Readership, 1585-1715 (1996)
  • W. Ong, Orality and Literacy (1982)
  • A. Pettegree and M. Hall, 'The Reformation and the book: a reconsideration', HJ 47 (2004)
  • R. Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk (1981 & 1994)
  • S. H. Steinberg, Five Hundred Years of Printing (4th edn, 1966)
  • G. Tyson & S. Wagonheim, Print and Culture in the Renaissance (1986)
  • D. Zaret, ‘Religion, science and printing in the public spheres in seventeenth-century England’, in C. Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere (1992)

3. Does regional variation make it impossible to generalise about reasons for the rise in European prosecution of witchcraft?

4. To what extent was the persecution of witches the result of ‘a clash between popular and elite culture’?

Witchcraft and magic
  • B. Ankarloo & G. Henningsen (eds), Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries (1990)
  • A. L. Barstow, Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch-hunts (1994)
  • J. Barry (ed.), Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (1996)
  • W. Behringer, Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria (1997)
  • “ , Shaman of Oberstdorf: Chonrad Stoeckhlin and the Phantoms of the Night (1998)
  • R. Briggs, Communities of Belief: Cultural and Social Tensions in Early Modern France (1989), pt I, chs 1-3
  • H.P. Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft (2003)
  • M. Gaskill, Witchcraft in england (1997/2003)
  • C. Ginzburg, The Night Battles: Witchcraft & Agrarian Culture in the 16th & 17th Centuries (1983)
  • “ , Ecstacies: Deciphering the Witches’ Sabbath (1989)
  • G. Henningsen, The Witches’ Advocate: Basque Witchcraft and the Spanish Inquisition (1980)
  • E. Labouvie, 'Men in witchcraft trials', in U. Rublack (ed.), Gender in Early Modern German History (2002)
  • C. Larner, The Enemies of God: the Witchhunt in Scotland (1981)
  • “ , Witchcraft and Religion: the Politics of Popular Belief (1984)
  • A. MacFarlane, Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England (1970)
  • P. Maxwell-Stuart (ed.), The Malleus Maleficarum (2006)
  • H. Midelfort, Witchhunting in South-western Germany, 1562-1684 (1972)
  • R. Martin, Witchcraft and the Inquisition in Venice 1550-1650 (1989)
  • E. W. Monter, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland (1976)
  • D. Purkiss, The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations (1996)
  • A. Rowlands, Witchcraft Narratives in Germany: Rothenburg 1561-1652 (2003)
  • W.F. Ryan, 'The witchcraft hysteria in early modern Europe: was Russia an exception?', Slavonic and East European Review 76 (1998)
  • J. Sharpe, Instruments of Darkness: Witchcraft in England 1550-1750 (1997)
  • “ , Witchcraft in Early Modern England (2001)
  • K. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (1971)
  • S. Wilson, The Magical Universe: Everyday Ritual and Magic in Pre-modern Europe (2002)

5. 'Popular culture was an early casualty of early modern change'. Discuss.

  • M. Bertrand (ed.), Popular Traditions and Learned Culture in France (1985)
  • A. Grafton & A. Blair (eds), The Transmission of Culture in Early Modern Europe (1990)
  • R. Hutton, The rise and Fall of Merry England (1994)
  • B. Reay (ed.), Popular Culture in Seventeenth-Century England (1985)
  • “ , Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750 (1998)
  • R. Scribner, Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (1987), chs 1-4
  • P. Spierenburg, The Broken Spell: A Cultural and Anthropological History of Preindustrial Europe (1991), chs 3, 4, 9
  • A. Walsham, Providence in Early Modern England (1999)

6. Did the early modern period witness the beginning of a ‘global economy’?

  • I. Altman & J. Horn (eds), ‘To Make America’: European Emigration in the Early Modern Period (1991)
  • M. Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men. Science, Technology & Ideologies of Western Dominance (1989)
  • “ (ed.), Islamic and European Expansion: The Forging of a Global Order (1993)
  • K. R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder & Settlement: Maritime Enterprise & the Genesis of the British Empire 1480-1630 (1984)
  • J. Axtell, Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North-America (1992)
  • C. R. Boxer, The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800 (1965)
  • “ , The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 (1969)
  • N. Canny (ed.), The Origins of Empire, Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. 1 (1998)
  • A.W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (1986)
  • R. Davies, The Rise of the Atlantic Economies (1973)
  • J. H. Elliott, Spain and its World, 1500-1700 (1989)
  • L. McAlister, Spain and Portugal in the New World 1492-1700 (1984)
  • J.H. Parry, The Spanish Seaborne Empire (1966)
  • A. Russell-Wood, A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia and America (1992)
  • P. Seed, Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World 1492-1640 (1995)
  • J. D. Tracy (ed.), The Rise of Merchant Empires (1993)
  • “ , The Political Society of Merchant Empires, 1350-1750 (1996)

7. Why did Christianity not make greater progress in Asia in the early modern period?

  • I. Altman & R. Butler, ‘The Contact of Cultures’, AHR 99 (1994)
  • C. R. Boxer, The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion 1470-1770 (1978)
  • “ , The Christian Century in Japan 1549-1650 (1993)
  • J. C. Brown, ‘Courtiers & Christians: The First Japanese Emissaries to Europe’, Renaiss.Quarterly 47 (1994)
  • G. H. Dunne, Generation of Giants: Story of Jesuits in China in the last Decades of the Ming Dynasty (1962)
  • J. Gernet, China and the Christian Impact. A Conflict of Cultures (1985)
  • D. F. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe (1965-93)
  • A. C. Ross, A Vision Betrayed: the Jesuits in Japan and China 1542-1742 (1994)
  • J.D. Spence, The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (1994)