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Politics and state formation: sixteenth century

1. ‘The advantages of empire far outweighed the disadvantages’ Do you agree with this assessment of the rule of Charles V?

2. ‘Not a medieval Emperor, but a European visionary.’ Discuss this view of Charles V.

  • K. Brandi, Charles V (1939)
  • M. Fernandez Alvarez, Charles V (1975)
  • H. Holborn, History of Modern Germany, 1 (1961)
  • H. Kamen, Spain 1469-1714: Society of Conflict (1991 edn)
  • J. Lynch, Spain 1516-1598 (1991) (earlier edns = Spain under the Habsburgs)

3. How great a threat did the Ottoman empire pose to sixteenth-century Europe?

  • S. Fischer-Galati, Ottoman Imperialism and German Protestantism, 1521-55 (1959)
  • A. C. Hess, ‘The Ottoman conquest of Egypt (1517) and the sixteenth-century world war’, Internat. Journal of Middle East Studies 4 (1973)
  • “ , The Forgotten Frontier (1978)

4. ‘Valois monarchy was ad hoc and reactive’ Is this a fair assessment of French governance in the years 1515-1559?

  • F. Baumgartner, Henry II, King of France, 1547-1559 (1988)
  • S. Hanley, The Lit de Justice of the Kings of France (1983)
  • R. J. Knecht, Renaissance Warrior and Patron: Francis I (1994)
  • G. Richardson, Renaissance Monarchy: the Reigns of Henry V111, Francis 1 and Charles V (2002)

5. To what extent did government change over the course of the Tudor period?

Henry VIII
  • G. W. Bernard, ‘Elton’s Cromwell’, History 83 (1998)
  • C. Coleman & D. Starkey (eds), Revolution Reassessed: Revisions in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986)
  • C. S. L. Davies, Peace, Print and Protestantism, 1450-1558 (1976)
  • G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (1953) [+ articles in P&P 25, 26, 29, 31 for the controversy generated by the Elton thesis]
  • “ , Reform and Reformation, England, 1509-1558 (1977)
  • M. Graves, Tudor Parliaments (1985)
  • S. Gunn, Early Tudor Government (1995)
  • “ , ‘The structures of politics in early Tudor England’, TRHS 2 (1995)
  • J. Loach, Parliament under the Tudors (1991)
  • D. MacCulloch, The Reign of Henry VIII (1995)
  • J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968)
  • D. Starkey, The Reign of Henry VIII (1985)
  • “ (ed.), Rivals in Power (1990)
  • G. Walker, Persuasive Factions in the Reign of Henry VIII (1995)
Elizabeth I
  • S. Adams, ‘Politics and Faction in Late Tudor England’, HT 32 (1982)
  • P. Collinson, ‘Puritans, Men of Business and Elizabethan Parliaments’, Parliamentary History 7 (1988) SLC and in his Elizabethan Essays (1994)
  • D. Dean, Law-Making and Society in Late Elizabethan England (1996), esp. conclusion
  • S. Doran; T. freeman (eds), Myth of Elizabeth (2003)
  • G.R. Elton, ‘Parliament in the Sixteenth Century’ HJ 22 (1979) SLC [elaborated in his The Parliament of England (1986)]
  • M. A. R. Graves, Elizabethan Parliaments 1559-1601 (1987)
  • C. Haigh, Elizabeth I (1988)
  • “ (ed.), The Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1984)
  • T. E. Hartley, Elizabeth’s Parliaments 1559-1601 (1992)
  • S. Hindle, The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640 (2000)
  • J. E. Neale, Elizabeth and her Parliaments (1953/7)
  • A. G. R. Smith, The Government of Elizabethan England (1967)
  • P. Williams, The Tudor Regime (1979)
  • “ , The Later Tudors, England 1547-1603 (1995) esp. ch. 5

6. ‘More symbolic protests than attempts to shake the throne.’ Discuss this view of Tudor rebellions. [*not for students taking ‘English Social History’] [OR:] ‘The notion of a Mid-Tudor Crisis can no longer be sustained.’ Discuss.

Rebellions
  • G. W. Bernard, War, Taxation and Rebellion in early Tudor England: Henry VIII, Wolsey and the Amicable Grant of 1525 (1986)
  • M. L. Bush, The Pilgrimage of Grace: a Study of the Rebel Armies of October 1536 (1996)
  • P. Caraman, The Western Rising: the Prayer Book Rebellion (1994)
  • A. Fletcher, Tudor Rebellions (4th edn, 1997)
  • R. W. Hoyle, The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Politics of the 1530s (2001)
  • A. Wood, Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England (2001)
Mid-Tudor crisis?
  • W. R. D. Jones, The Mid-Tudor Crisis, 1539-63 (1973)
  • J. Loach, A Mid-Tudor Crisis? (Hist. Assoc. 1992)
  • J. Loach & R. Tittler (eds), The Mid-Tudor Polity 1540-1560 (1980)
  • D. M. Loades, The Mid-Tudor Crisis, 1545-65 (1992)

7. Why did France become embroiled in more than thirty years of civil war in the late sixteenth century?

  • P. Benedict, Rouen during the Wars of Religion (1981) esp. intro and conclusion
  • “ et al. (eds), Reformation, Revolt and Civil War in France and the Netherlands (1999)
  • K. Cameron et al (eds), The Adventure of Religious Pluralism in Early Modern France (2000)
  • N. Z. Davis, Society and Culture in Early Modern France (1975) ch. 6, ‘The Rites of Violence’, also in P& P 59 (1973) & debate in P&P 67 (1975) SLC
  • B. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in sixteenth-century Paris (1991)
  • M. Greengrass, The French Reformation (1987)
  • “ , ‘The Psychology of Religious Violence’, French History, 5 (1991), 467-74
  • “ , ‘France’ in Scribner (ed.), Reformation in National Context (1994)
  • “ , France in the Age of Henry IV (2nd edn, 1995)
  • H. Heller, Iron and Blood: Civil Wars in Sixteenth-Century France (1991)
  • M. P. Holt, The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle during the Wars of Religion (1986)
  • “ , ‘Putting Religion Back into the Wars of Religion’, French Historical Studies, 18 (1993), 524-51 SLC
  • “ , The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1629 (1995)
  • R. M. Kingdon, Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555-63 (1973)
  • R. J. Knecht, The French Wars of Religion (1989; updated 1995)
  • “ , Catherine de’ Medici (1998)
  • “ , The French Civil Wars (2000)
  • H.G. Koenigsberger, ‘The Organisation of Revolutionary Parties in France and the Netherlands during the sixteenth century’, JMH, 27 (1955) SLC & in his Estates and Revolutions
  • J. R. Major, ‘Noble Income and the Wars of Religion in France’, AHR, 86 (1981), 21-48 SLC
  • R. A. Mentzer & A. Spicer (eds), Society and Culture in the Huguenot World 1559-1685 (2002)
  • D. Potter, The French Wars of Religion: Selected Documents (1997)
  • P. Roberts, A City in Conflict: Troyes during the French Wars of Religion (1996)
  • “ , ‘The Conflict over Sites for Reformed Worship in Sixteenth-Century France’, ARG 89 (1998), 247-67
  • “ , The French Wars of Religion (Hist.Assoc. 1999)
  • J. H. M. Salmon, The French Wars of Religion: How important were religious factors? (1967)
  • “ , Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century (1975)
  • A. Soman (ed.), The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew (1974)
  • N. M. Sutherland, The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew and the European Conflict, 1559-72 (1973)
  • “ , The Huguenot Struggle for Recognition (1980)

8. How consistent was Philip II’s policy towards the enemies of his empire?

  • A. Dominguez, The Golden Age of Spain (1971)
  • F. Fernandez-Armesto, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • J. I. Fortea Perez, ‘The Cortes of Castile and Philip II’s fiscal policy’, PER 11 (1991)
  • P. Limm, The Dutch Revolt 1559-1648 (1989)
  • J. Lynch, Spain under the Habsburgs, vol. 2 (1969 & 1981)
  • B. Martin & G. Parker, The Spanish Armada (1988)
  • G. Parker, The Dutch Revolt (1977)
  • “ , Philip II (1978)
  • P. Pierson, Philip II of Spain (1975)
  • I. Thompson, War and Government in Habsburg Spain 1560-1620 (1976)
  • P. Williams, Philip II