Acute ethanol exposure has bidirectional actions on the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine in rat hippocampus
Hughes Victoria, Richardson Magnus JE and Wall Mark J
Ethanol is a widely used recreational drug with complex effects on physiological and pathological brain function. In epileptic patients the use of ethanol can modify seizure initiation and subsequent seizure activity with reports of ethanol being both pro and anti-convulsant. One proposed target of ethanol's actions is the neuromodulator adenosine, which is released during epileptic seizures to feedback and inhibit the occurrence of subsequent seizures.
We found that ethanol has bi-directional actions on adenosine signalling.The complex dose-dependent actions of ethanol on adenosine signalling could in part explain the mixture of pro-convulsant and anticonvulsant actions of ethanol that have previously both been reported.
The widespread dissemination of integrons throughout bacterial communities in a riverine system
Gregory CA Amos, Semina Ploumakis, Lihong Zhang, Peter M Hawkey, William H Gaze, Elizabeth MH Wellington
Anthropogenic inputs increase levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment, however, it is unknown how these inputs create this observed increase, and if anthropogenic sources impact AMR in environmental bacteria. The aim of this study was to characterise the role of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the dissemination of class 1 integrons (CL1s) in the riverine environment. Using sample sites from upstream and downstream of a WWTP, we demonstrate through isolation and culture-independent analysis that WWTP effluent significantly increases both CL1 abundance and antibiotic resistance in the riverine environment.
In silico identification, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel tetrazole inhibitors of MurB
In the context of antibacterial drug discovery resurgence, novel therapeutic targets and new compounds with alternative mechanisms of action are of paramount importance. We focused on UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (i.e. MurB), an underexploited target enzyme that is involved in early steps of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. On the basis of the recently reported crystal structure of MurB in complex with NADP+, a pharmacopohore model was generated and used in a virtual screening campaign with combined structure-based and ligand-based approaches
Light color acclimation is a key process in the global ocean distribution of Synechococcus cyanobacteria
Théophile Grébert, Hugo Doré, Frédéric Partensky, Gregory K. Farrant, Emmanuel S. Boss, Marc Picheral, Lionel Guidi, Stéphane Pesant, David J. Scanlan, Patrick Wincker, Silvia G. Acinas, David M. Kehoe and Laurence Garczarek
This paper highlights how a ubiquitous marine phototroph, Synechococcus, adapts to changes in light quality across the global ocean. Particularly interesting is that Synechococcus cells capable of dynamically changing their pigment content in accordance with the ambient light colour are ubiquitous in these ecosystems, making them planktonic ‘chameleons’. PNAS. February 2018
Interaction between Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is beneficial for colonisation and pathogenicity in a mixed-biofilm.
Alves, P, Al-Badi, E, Withycombe, C, Jones, P, Purdy, KJ, and Maddocks, SE
Debate regarding the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wounds remains contentious, with the dominant hypothesis describing a situation akin to niche partitioning, whereby both microorganisms are present but occupy distinct regions of the wound without interacting.. These studies demonstrate that, contrary to the dominant hypothesis, interactions between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa may be an important factor for both colonisation and pathogenicity in the chronic infected wound.
Extreme rainfall affects assembly of the root associated fungal community
Barnes Christopher; van der Gast Christopher; McNamara Niall; Rowe Rebecca; Bending Gary
Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. We conclude that extreme rainfall events may be important yet overlooked determinants of root-associated fungal community assembly. Given the integral role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in biogeochemical cycles, these events may have considerable impacts upon the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.