Point pattern simulation modelling of extensive and intensive chicken farming in Thailand: Accounting for clustering and landscape characteristics
Celia Chaiban, Christophe Biscio, Weerapong Thanapongtharm, Michael Tildesley, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson, Sophie O Vanwambeke, Marius Gilbert
The recent intensification of animal production economies to meet the growing demands of increasingly urban populations comes with significant environmental, health and social impacts. To assess these impacts, detailed maps of livestock distributions have been developed, providing estimates of the density of animals However, many epidemiological or environmental science applications would make better use of data where the distribution and size of farms are predicted rather than the number of animals per pixel. We investigated the spatial point pattern distribution of extensive and intensive chicken farms in Thailand. Our point-pattern simulation models could be particularly valuable in countries where farm location data are unavailable.
Agricultural Systems, march 2019
Assessing evolutionary risks of resistance for new antimicrobial therapies
Brockhurst MA, Harrison F, Veening J-W, Harrison E, Blackwell G, Iqbal Zamin and Maclean C
New antibiotics are urgently needed to combat rising rates of resistance against all existing classes of antimicrobials. We highlight key issues that complicate the prediction of resistance evolution in the real world and outline the ways in which these can be overcome.
Xavier Didelot publications
A Role for Tetracycline Selection in Recent Evolution of Agriculture-Associated Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 078
A novel sulfonamide resistance mechanism by two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase system in sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria
Dae-Wi Kim, Cung Nawl Thawng, Kihyun Lee, Elizabeth M.H.Wellington, Chang-Jun Cha
Sulfonamide-degrading bacteria have been discovered in various environments, suggesting the presence of novel resistance mechanisms via drug inactivation. In this study, Microbacterium sp. CJ77 capable of utilizing various sulfonamides as a sole carbon source was isolated from a composting facility. Our results suggest that the sulfonamide metabolism may have evolved in sulfonamide-resistant bacteria which had already acquired the class 1 integron under sulfonamide selection pressures. This is the first study to report that sulX responsible for both sulfonamide degradation and resistance is prevalent in sulfonamide-degrading acti-nobacteria and its genetic signatures indicate horizontal gene transfer of the novel resistance gene.
The RNA helicase 1 UPF1 associates with mRNAs co-transcriptionally and is required for the release of mRNAs from gene loci
Anand K. Singh, Subhendu Roy Choudhury, Sandip De, Jie Zhang, Stephen Kissane, Vibha Dwivedi, Preethi Ramanathan, Marija Petric, Luisa Orsini , Daniel Hebenstreit and Saverio Brogna
UPF1 is an RNA helicase that is required for efficient nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in eukaryotes, and the predominant view is that UPF1 mainly operates on the 3'UTRs of mRNAs that are directed for NMD in the cytoplasm. Here we offer evidence, obtained from Drosophila, that UPF1 constantly moves between the nucleus and cytoplasm by a mechanism that requires its RNA helicase activity. Intron recognition seems to interfere with association and translocation of UPF1 on nascent pre-mRNAs, and cells depleted of UPF1 show defects in the release of mRNAs from transcription sites and mRNA export from the nucleus.
Kevin Purdy publications
COD/sulfate ratio does not affect the methane yield and microbial diversity in anaerobic digesters