Bedform characteristics and biofilm community development interact tomodify hyporheic exchange
The physical and biological attributes of riverine ecosystems interact in a complex manner which can affect the hydrodynamic behaviour of the system. This can alter the mixing characteristics of a river at the sediment-water interface. Research showed the importance of this dynamic ecotone in connecting and regulating river systems. An understanding of process-based interactions driving hyporheic exchange is still limited. The interplay between bed morphology and sediment size on biofilm community development and the impact on hyporheic exchange mechanisms, was experimentally considered. Three profiles of bedform investigated using recirculating flume systems. Our results implies that bedforms increase hydrological connectivity, generating the opportunity to support microbial communities at depth and as such, improve the self-purification ability of river systems.
Strategies for Improved Intra-arterial Treatments Targeting Brain Tumors: A Systematic Review
Rui Huang, Johannes Boltze and Shen Li
Conventional treatments for brain tumors relying on surgery, radiation, and systemic chemotherapy are often associated with high recurrence and poor prognosis. In recent decades, intra-arterialadministrationofanti-cancerdrugshasbeenconsideredasuitable alternative drug delivery route to intravenous and oral administration. Improving targeting and accuracy of intra-arterial administration has become a major research focus. In this systematic review, we summarize and discuss both preclinical and clinical research, focusing on advantages and disadvantages of different treatment strategies for a variety of cerebral tumor types.
Key questions for modelling COVID-19 exit strategies
Thompson RN, Hollingsworth TD, Isham V, Arribas-Bel D, Ashby B, Britton T, Challenor P, Chappell LHK, Clapham H, Cunniffe NJ, Dawid AP, Donnelly CA, Eggo, RM, Funk S, Gilbert N, Glendinning P, Gog JR, Hart WS, Heesterbeek H, House T, Keeling M, Kiss IZ, Kretzschmar ME, Lloyd AL, McBryde ES, McCaw JM, McKinley TJ, Miller JC, Morris M, O’Neill PD, Parag KV, Pearson CAB, Pellis L, Pullam JRC, Ross JV, Tomba GS, Silverman BW, Struchiner CJ, Tildesley MJ, Trapman P, Webb CR, Mollison D & Restif O
Combinations of intense non-pharmaceutical interventions (lockdowns) were introduced worldwide to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Many governments have begun to implement exit strategies that relax restrictions while attempting to control the risk of a surge in cases. Mathematical modelling has played a central role in guiding interventions, but the challenge of designing optimal exit strategies in the face of ongoing transmission is unprecedented. Here, we propose a roadmap that was discussed from the Isaac Newton Institute ‘Models for an exit strategy’ workshop (11–15 May 2020), to facilitate the development of reliable models to guide exit strategies that balance socio-economic benefits with public health.
Engineering isoprenoid quinone production in yeast
Isoprenoid quinones are bioactive molecules that are traditionhetic Biolally found to be involved in primary metabolism, where they act as electron transporters, but specialized isoprenoid quinones are also produced by all domains of life. Here, we report the engineering of a baker’s yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae EPYFA3, for the production of isoprenoid quinones. As a proof of concept, our new host strain was used to overproduce the endogenous isoprenoid quinone coenzyme Q6, resulting in a nearly three-fold production increase. EPYFA3 represents a valuable platform for the heterologous production of high value isoprenoid quinones, and facilitates the elucidation of isoprenoid quinone biosynthetic pathways
Understanding the pathophysiological actions of tau oligomers : a critical review of current electrophysiological methods
Tau is a predominantly neuronal protein that is normally bound to microtubules, where it acts to modulate neuronal and axonal stability. In humans, pathological forms of tau are implicated in a range of diseases that are collectively known as tauopathies. Understanding the concentration-, time-, and neuronal compartment-dependent actions of soluble tau oligomers on neuronal and synaptic properties are essential to understanding how best to counteract its effects and to develop effective treatment strategies. Here, we will discuss the current standard approaches and will describe a new approach that addresses specific challenges with the current methods.
Conformational dynamics of a G protein-coupled receptor helix 8 in lipid membranes
Patricia M. Dijkman, Juan C. Muñoz-García, Steven R. Lavington, Patricia Suemy Kumagai, Rosana I. dos Reis, Daniel Yin, Phillip J. Stansfeld, Antonio José Costa-Filho and Anthony Watt
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and pharmaceutically most important class of membrane proteins encoded in the human genome, characterized by a seven-transmembrane helix architecture and a C-terminal amphipathic helix 8 (H8). In a minority of GCPR structures solved to date, H8 either is absent or adopts an unusual conformation. The controversial existence of H8 has been examined here for the nonthermostabilized receptor in a functionally supporting membrane environment using electron paramagnetic resonance, molecular dynamics simulations, and circular dichroism.