The use of an electronic nose to detect early signs of soft-rot infection in potatoes
Massimo F Rutolo, John P Clarkson, James A Covington
In this paper we report on the detection of soft-rot in potatoes caused by the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum through the use of an array of low cost gas sensors. This disease results in significant crop losses in store (circa 5%) with associated negative financial impacts. As soft-rot is associated with a strong odour and there is forced air movement through potato stores, our aim was to investigate the potential of an array of low-cost gas sensors to detect the disease. The identified sensors offer promise for an automated in-store monitoring system
Preceding crop and seasonal effects influence fungal, bacterial and nematode diversity in wheat and oilseed rape rhizosphere and soil
Crop rotation can have major influences on yield, which may be the result of changes in the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome In the current study we investigated the effect of preceding crops on wheat and oilseed rape yield, with associated changes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil communities of fungi, bacteria and nematodes using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of rRNA genes. We conclude that overall, preceding crop had less impact on community composition than season or crop type, but that specific changes in communities at particular plant growth stages may have substantive impacts on crop growth.
Quinclorac resistance induced by the suppression of the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis
Yuan Gao, JunLi, Xukun Pan, Dingrong Liu, Richard Napier, Liyao Dong
We previously reported that the mechanism of quinclorac resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis may be closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and the detoxification of cyanide. Differences in EcCAS gene sequences and expression levels may result in higher capacity to detoxify cyanide in resistant biotypes, which may avoid cyanide accumulation and avoid more ethylene and cyanide production and then avoid damage. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism of resistance related to ethylene biosynthesis in E. crus-galli var. zelayensis.
Alternative splicing associated with phenotypic plasticity in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris
Price J, Harrison MC, Hammond RL, Adams S, Gutierrez-Marcos J, Mallon EB
Phenotypic plasticity is when one genome can produce more than one phenotype. The caste system found in many social insects is an important example of plasticity. Several studies have examined gene expression in social insect developmental and caste differences. Changes in gene expression, however, are not the only source of phenotypic plasticity. Here, we investigate the role of alternative splicing in the buff-tailed bumble bee Bombus terrestris.
Plant Rhizosphere Selection of Plasmodiophorid Lineages from Bulk Soil: The Importance of “Hidden” Diversity
Microbial communities closely associated with the rhizosphere can have strong positive and negative impacts on plant health and growth. We used a group-specific amplicon approach to investigate local scale drivers in the diversity and distribution of plasmodiophorids in rhizosphere/root and bulk soil samples from oilseed rape (OSR) and wheat agri-systems. We show that group-targeted eDNA approaches to microbial symbiont-host ecology reveal significant novel diversity and enable inference of differential activity and potential interactions between sequence types, as well as their presence.
Weed Resistance to Synthetic Auxin Herbicides
Roberto Busi, Danica E Goggin, Ian Heap, Michael J Horak, Mithila Jugulam, Robert A Masters, Richard Napier, Dilpreet S Riar, Norbert M Satchivi, Joel Torra, Phillip Westra, and Terry R. Wright
Herbicides classified as synthetic auxins have been most commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of crops and in non-cropland areas since the first synthetic auxin herbicide (SAH). An understanding of the context and mechanisms of SAH resistance evolution can inform management practices to sustain the longevity and utility of this important class of herbicides. We present an overview of the current state of knowledge of SAH resistance mechanisms including case studies of weed species resistant to SAHs and perspectives on mitigating resistance development in SAH-tolerant crops.