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The genome of the water strider Gerris buenoi reveals expansions of gene repertoires associated with adaptations to life on the water

BMC Genomics Armisén D, Rajakumar R, Friedrich M, Benoit JB, Robertson HM, Panfilio KA et al.

Having conquered water surfaces worldwide, the semi-aquatic bugs occupy ponds, streams, lakes, mangroves, and even open oceans. The diversity of this group has inspired a range of scientific studies from ecology and evolution to developmental genetics and hydrodynamics of fluid locomotion. However, the lack of a representative water strider genome hinders our ability to more thoroughly investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of adaptation and diversification within this group. Here we report the sequencing and manual annotation of the Gerris buenoi (G. buenoi) genome; the first water strider genome to be sequenced thus far. Our findings suggest that local gene duplications might have played an important role during the evolution of water striders.

BMC Genomics. November 2018

Wed 12 December 2018, 07:59 | Tags: Environmental Bioscience

Microevolution of Neisseria lactamica during nasopharyngeal colonisation induced by controlled human infection

Nature Comms nov18Pandey A, Cleary DW, Laver JR, Gorringe A, Deasy AM, Dale AP, Morris PD, Didelot X, Maiden MCJ, Read RC

Neisseria lactamica is a harmless coloniser of the infant respiratory tract, and has a mutually-excluding relationship with the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Here we report controlled human infection with genomically-defined N. lactamica and subsequent bacterial microevolution during 26 weeks of colonisation.. Our results suggest that phase variable genes are often mutated during carriage-associated microevolution.

Nature Communications. November 2018

Mon 10 December 2018, 07:52 | Tags: Biomedical Science

Capturing sexual contact patterns in modelling the spread of sexually transmitted infections: evidence using Natsal-3

PLoS One logoDatta S, Mercer CH and Keeling MJ 

Understanding the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a population is of great importance to the planning and delivery of health services globally. Unlike many other infections which can be captured by assumptions of random mixing, STI transmission is intimately linked to the number and pattern of sexual contacts and this variation gives rise to the extremes of risk within populations which need to be captured in predictive models of STI transmission. We use probability sample survey data from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) to determine robust distributions for the rate of new partnerships that involve condomless sex and can therefore facilitate the spread of STIs.

PLoS One. November 2018

Fri 07 December 2018, 07:59 | Tags: Biomedical Science

A role for 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine in altering plant immunity

Phytochemistry nov18Drenichev MS, Bennett M, Novikov RA, Mansfield J, Smirnoff N, Grant M, Mikhailov SN

Our understanding of how, and the extent to which, phytopathogens reconfigure host metabolic pathways to enhance virulence is remarkably limited. Here we investigate the dynamics of the natural disaccharide nucleoside, 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana infected with virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000. We report the first synthesis of 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine using a method involving the condensation of a small excess of 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-three-O-benzoyl-β-ribofuranose activated with tin tetrachloride with 2',5'-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyladenosine in 1,2-dichloroethane with further removal of silyl and benzoyl protecting groups.

Phytochemistry. November 2018

Wed 05 December 2018, 07:56 | Tags: Plant and Crop Science

Estimating and exploring the proportions of inter- and intrastate cattle shipments in the United States

pvm_july15.jpgBeck-Johnson LM, Hallman C, Miller RS, Portacci K, Gorsich EE, Grear DA, Hartman K, Webb CT

In the United States, the most complete national-scale data available on cattle shipments are based on Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection, which track the shipment of cattle between states; data on intrastate cattle shipments are lacking. Here we develop four new datasets on intrastate cattle shipments in the U.S., including an expert elicitation survey covering 19 states and territories and three state-level brand inspection data sets. Our data sets are the most extensive and geographically comprehensive information to date on intrastate cattle shipments. Additionally, our analyses on predicted shipment patterns suggest that assumptions about intrastate shipments could have consequences for targeted surveillance.

Preventive Veterinary Medicine. November 2018

Mon 03 December 2018, 08:23

Eric Holub publications

Plant Journal nov18 smallThe Arabidopsis RRM domain protein EDM3 mediates race-specific disease resistance by controlling H3K9me2-dependent alternative polyadenylation of RPP7 immune receptor transcripts

Lai Y, Cuzick A, Lu X, Wang J, Katiyar N, Tsuchiya T, Le Roche K, McDowell J, Holub E and Eulgem T

The NLR-receptor RPP7 mediates race-specific immunity in Arabidopsis. Previous screens for enhanced downy mildew (edm) mutants identified the co-chaperone SGT1b (EDM1) and the PHD-finger protein EDM2 as critical regulators of RPP7. Here, we describe a third edm mutant compromised in RPP7 immunity, edm3. EDM3 encodes a nuclear-localized protein featuring an RNA-recognition motif. Our results highlight the complexity of plant NLR gene regulation and establish a functional and physical link between a histone mark and NLR-transcript processing.
The Plant Journal. November 2018

New Phytologist nov18 smallAlbugo candida race diversity, ploidy and host-associated microbes revealed using DNA sequence capture on diseased plants in the field

Jouet A, Saunders DGO, McMullan M, Ward B, Furzer O, Jupe F, Cevik V, Hein I, Thilliez GJA, Holub E, van Oosterhout C, Jones JDG.

Physiological races of the oomycete Albugo candida are biotrophic pathogens of diverse plant species, that cause infections that suppress host immunity to other pathogens. However, A. candida race diversity and the consequences of host immunosuppression are poorly understood in the field. We report a method that enables sequencing of DNA of plant pathogens and plant‐associated microbes directly from field samples. We apply this method to explore race diversity in A. candida and to detect A. candida‐associated microbes in the field. This paper shows that targeted sequencing has a great potential for the study of pathogen populations while they are colonizing their hosts. This method could be applied to other microbes, especially to those that cannot be cultured.
New Phytologist. October 2018

Wed 28 November 2018, 08:21 | Tags: Plant and Crop Science

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