Adaptive significance of functional germination traits in crop wild relatives of Brassica
E Castillo-Lorenzo, WE Finch-Savage, CE Seal, HW Pritchard
Functional germination traits contribute to both niche competitiveness and crop yield outcomes. However, there is little understanding of the adaptive significance of the germination thermal- and hydro-parameters in crop wild relatives, yet these species are anticipated to be the source of adaptive traits for future agriculture. Seeds of 10 seed lots of Brassica species, sub-species and inbred lines from across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East were subjected to a range of temperature and water potential conditions. Our results show that the selection of the crop B. oleracea for fastest germination under irrigated conditions likely limits the capacity of the current genepool to cope with erratic periods of drought predicted in future European climates.
The genome of the water strider Gerris buenoi reveals expansions of gene repertoires associated with adaptations to life on the water
Armisén D, Rajakumar R, Friedrich M, Benoit JB, Robertson HM, Panfilio KA et al.
Having conquered water surfaces worldwide, the semi-aquatic bugs occupy ponds, streams, lakes, mangroves, and even open oceans. The diversity of this group has inspired a range of scientific studies from ecology and evolution to developmental genetics and hydrodynamics of fluid locomotion. However, the lack of a representative water strider genome hinders our ability to more thoroughly investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of adaptation and diversification within this group. Here we report the sequencing and manual annotation of the Gerris buenoi (G. buenoi) genome; the first water strider genome to be sequenced thus far. Our findings suggest that local gene duplications might have played an important role during the evolution of water striders.
Microevolution of Neisseria lactamica during nasopharyngeal colonisation induced by controlled human infection
Pandey A, Cleary DW, Laver JR, Gorringe A, Deasy AM, Dale AP, Morris PD, Didelot X, Maiden MCJ, Read RC
Neisseria lactamica is a harmless coloniser of the infant respiratory tract, and has a mutually-excluding relationship with the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Here we report controlled human infection with genomically-defined N. lactamica and subsequent bacterial microevolution during 26 weeks of colonisation.. Our results suggest that phase variable genes are often mutated during carriage-associated microevolution.
Capturing sexual contact patterns in modelling the spread of sexually transmitted infections: evidence using Natsal-3
Datta S, Mercer CH and Keeling MJ
Understanding the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a population is of great importance to the planning and delivery of health services globally. Unlike many other infections which can be captured by assumptions of random mixing, STI transmission is intimately linked to the number and pattern of sexual contacts and this variation gives rise to the extremes of risk within populations which need to be captured in predictive models of STI transmission. We use probability sample survey data from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) to determine robust distributions for the rate of new partnerships that involve condomless sex and can therefore facilitate the spread of STIs.
A role for 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine in altering plant immunity
Drenichev MS, Bennett M, Novikov RA, Mansfield J, Smirnoff N, Grant M, Mikhailov SN
Our understanding of how, and the extent to which, phytopathogens reconfigure host metabolic pathways to enhance virulence is remarkably limited. Here we investigate the dynamics of the natural disaccharide nucleoside, 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana infected with virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000. We report the first synthesis of 3'-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine using a method involving the condensation of a small excess of 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-three-O-benzoyl-β-ribofuranose activated with tin tetrachloride with 2',5'-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyladenosine in 1,2-dichloroethane with further removal of silyl and benzoyl protecting groups.
Estimating and exploring the proportions of inter- and intrastate cattle shipments in the United States
Beck-Johnson LM, Hallman C, Miller RS, Portacci K, Gorsich EE, Grear DA, Hartman K, Webb CT
In the United States, the most complete national-scale data available on cattle shipments are based on Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection, which track the shipment of cattle between states; data on intrastate cattle shipments are lacking. Here we develop four new datasets on intrastate cattle shipments in the U.S., including an expert elicitation survey covering 19 states and territories and three state-level brand inspection data sets. Our data sets are the most extensive and geographically comprehensive information to date on intrastate cattle shipments. Additionally, our analyses on predicted shipment patterns suggest that assumptions about intrastate shipments could have consequences for targeted surveillance.