PKG1α oxidation negatively regulates food seeking behaviour and reward
Celine Duraffourd, Robert Huckstepp, Ingke Braren, Cathy Fernandes, Olivier Brock, alessio delogu, Oleksandra Prysyazhna, Joseph Burgoyne, Philip Eaton
Genes that are highly conserved in food seeking behaviour, such as protein kinase G (PKG), are of interest because of their potential role in the global obesity epidemic. PKG1α can be activated by binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) or oxidant-induced interprotein disulfide bond formation between the two subunits of this homodimeric kinase. PKG1α activation by cGMP plays a role in reward and addiction through its actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. Our study shows that disulfide-PKG1α in VTA neurons acts as a negative regulator of feeding and therefore may provide a novel therapeutic target for obesity.
Liposome-based transfection enhances RNAi and CRISPR-1 mediated mutagenesis in non-model nematode systems
Sally Adams, Prachi Pathak, Hongguang Shao, James B Lok and Andre Pires da Silva
Nematodes belong to one of the most diverse animal phyla. However, functional genomic studies in nematodes, other than in a few species, have often been limited in their reliability and success. Here we report that by combining liposome-based technology with microinjection, we were able to establish a wide range of genomic techniques in the newly described nematode genus Auanema. The method also allowed heritable changes in dauer larvae of Auanema, despite the immaturity of the gonad at the time of the microinjection. As proof of concept for potential functional studies in other nematode species, we also induced RNAi in the free-living nematode Pristionchus pacificus and targeted the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis.
Transgressive segregation reveals mechanisms of Arabidopsis immunity to Brassica-infecting races of white rust (Albugo candida)
Barley resists wheat-infecting powdery mildew races (and vice versa), and both barley and wheat resist potato late blight. Such “nonhost” resistance could result because the pathogen fails to suppress defense or triggers innate immunity due to failure to evade detection. Albugo candida causes white rust on most Brassicaceae, and we investigated Arabidopsis NHR to Brassica-infecting races. Transgressive segregation for resistance in Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines revealed genes encoding nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors. Some of these NLR-encoding genes confer resistance to white rust in Brassica sp. This genetic method thus provides a route to reveal resistance genes for crops, widening the pool from which such genes might be obtained.
Draft Genome Sequence of an Onion Basal Rot Isolate of Fusarium proliferatum
Fusarium proliferatum is a component of the onion basal rot disease complex. We present an annotated F. proliferatum draft genome sequence, totaling 45.8 Mb in size, assembled into 597 contigs, with a predicted 15,418 genes. The genome contains 58 secondary metabolite clusters and homologs of the Fusarium oxysporum effector SIX2.
An Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat protein harbors an adenylyl cyclase catalytic center and affects responses to pathogens
Bianchet C, Wong A, Quaglia M, Alqurashi M, Gehring C, Ntoukakis V, Pasqualini S
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger cAMP from ATP. Here we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein (At3g14460; AtLRRAC1) as an adenylyl cyclase. Our findings are consistent with a role of cAMP-dependent pathways in the defense against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogens.
Flax latitudinal adaptation at LuTFL1 altered architecture and promoted fiber production
Gutaker RM, Zaidem M, Fu Y-B, Diederichsen A, Smith O, Ware, R & Allaby RG
After domestication in the Near East around 10,000 years ago several founder crops, flax included, spread to European latitudes. On reaching northerly latitudes the architecture of domesticated flax became more suitable to fiber production over oil, with longer stems, smaller seeds and fewer axillary branches. Latitudinal adaptations in crops typically result in changes in flowering time, often involving the PEBP family of genes that also have the potential to influence plant architecture. We conclude that specialized fiber flax types could have formed as a consequence of a natural adaptation of cultivated flax to higher latitudes.