Epitaxial growth of semiconductor materials is normally done in parallel with structural characterisation. These studies provide a feedback on the quality of the materials being grown, including:
- Surface roughness and morphology, surface defects (AFM)
- Compositions and relaxations of layers (X-Ray Diffraction)
- Epitaxial layer thickness and quality (TEM, XRR)
- Electron diffraction and surface quality (RHEED, LEED)
- Ion Scattering Techniques (LEIS, MEIS, HEIS)
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Other structural characterisation is performed to understand the atomic structure of materials, or to profile the composition by depth.