# The Seventh Warwick Empirical Modelling Bulletin (WEB-EM-7) / 2010-11

### Tolga Akin

In automotive design, drivetrain of an automobile refers to the elements of the automobile that are responsible for producing power and transmitting the torque to the driving wheels. These elements include the engine, the gearbox and the driveshaft. The place and role of a drivetrain is determined by the automobile layout. With respect to the driving wheels and the location of the engine, there are a few distinct categories. Some of these categories are front-engine, front-wheel drive (FF); mid-engine, front-wheel drive (MF); front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR); rear-engine, rearwheel drive (RR); rear-engine, front-wheel drive (RF) and four wheel drive (4WD). In modern automobiles, the engine is an internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engine means that the gas-air mixture is ignited inside the engine to produce power. There are variants of this type of engine, however the most widely used ones have cylindrical vessels and pistons. The fuel is ignited in these vessels called cylinders and force the pistons to move up and down. This vertical (or in some designs, horizontal) motion of the pistons are then converted to a circular motion which is transmitted to the wheels. If the engine is close to the driving wheels such as in front-wheel drive (FF) layouts, this transmission is relatively simple. However, if the driving wheels are far from the engine such as in front-engine, rearwheel drive (FR) layout, a component called “driveshaft” is needed. The driveshaft is a rotating rod that transmits the motion to the parts that are connected to the wheels. In this project, some components of a front-engine, rear-wheel drive automobile are modeled and the dependencies within the system are studied.

### Mohammed Alhourani

Rocket science is usually used to teach Math and Physics to students. But Analyzing Rocket Movement is a very hard task taking in account all the forces that will affect the rocket during its flight. And trying to model this movement in traditional or object-oriented programming languages will force a limitation on how we interact and learn from this model especially when trying to change or extend the parameters affecting the movement of the rocket in an easy and obvious way. Empirical Modelling principals introduced new concepts that will allow the building of robust models that can be manipulated and extended at runtime, which introduce more interactive models for learning and interaction. Eden and Cadence are used to build this Model using EM principles. This project will be focusing on building a model for studying rocket movement for educational proposes, and analyzing forces which are involved.

### Jesko Bartelt

Research in Empirical Modelling (EM) promises major benefits in the domain of providing educational software. This paper contributes to the research by introducing a model for educational purposes and discussing the modelling experience relating to the claimed benefits of EM. Previous research results are confirmed, but issues that could hinder the spread of EM for learning are spotted as well. In order to promote EM as the best approach for learning, more comprehensive case studies than the one in this paper will be necessary.

### James Beckenham

This paper will discuss the use of Empirical Modelling in demonstrating and explaining the offside rule within the game of football. A model is created using a modelling approach based on the principles behind Empirical Modelling and related software and tools. This model will be used to help summarise and explain the offside rule as well as helping to teach people when the rule applies and when it does not. The model will provide a means of investigating the different outcomes given different rules and situations. The experimental approach this model uses offers the option that it could be used within the area of Educational Technology, as it helps the user build up an understanding of the offside rule by explaining each sub-rule, building up to complete understanding of the rule. The paper goes onto evaluate the model and the overall approach, as well as assessing the suitability of current Empirical Modelling tools for the topic.

### Stephen Brown

Modelling moving systems is a complex task that traditional computer science is not ideal for. I intend to model the movement of a boat in moving water, taking into account its direction, current, power source and wind. This is a task for which empirical modelling is very suited, and is therefore ideal for solving the problem. The problem will be broken down into various sections, starting from a boat with no rudder, power or wind, and adding the various parts one by one to show the effect of each change. As a keen kayaker myself, I know how the various outside factors affect the movement of my boat and so will be able to translate my knowledge into the model in order to show others how the concept functions, and allow them to form their own construal of the problem.

### Matthew Carter

Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric that hypothesises that an individual can be identified from their habitual typing rhythms. To make authentication algorithms possible, user models are built from timing information extracted from each user typing set phrases of text. Each user model consists of keystroke features, such as the time a certain key is held down for. This paper explores the benefits of applying EM to the field of keystroke dynamics, both as an educational tool and as a visualisation tool. An original model is developed that uses both historic data and live data, input from the user through interaction with the model, to illustrate how user models are built and used in a keystroke dynamics system. From interaction with the visualisation aspect of the model, observations are made that could influence designs of user models in future keystroke dynamics systems.

### Jonathan Chase

This paper presents and discusses an attempt to model the physical mechanics behind the act of bowling a cricket ball using Empirical Modelling techniques and its use as a tool for developing bowling tactics and technique. The scenario will be described and discussed along with an explanation of the parameters and dependencies involved in calculating the trajectories of the ball. Bowling a cricket ball is actually a complex physics calculation - much of the skill of bowling well comes from understanding and mastering the rules that govern the movement of the ball. Being able to calculate the path of a ball is also important as an umpire, because many decisions are dependent on whether the ball is going to hit the stumps. The Hawkeye system currently used by professionals is used for this purpose. There are many factors that the movement of the ball is dependent on. Dependencies can include the effect of the height of the bowler, pace of bowling and texture of the pitch on the height of the bounce of the ball. A corresponding EM model that illustrates these dependencies, developed in the Eden tool, is introduced with a description of its implementation and use. Limitations of the current modelling approach are discussed - limitations such as complex environmental factors that may be beyond the scope of this paper to incorporate. Finally, the suitability and effectiveness of the Empirical Modelling approach to this problem will be assessed with conclusions.

### Chao Chen

The intention of this paper is going to explore the performance of the empirical perspective and tkeden toolkit with relevance to the creation of education, decision support and simulation tools in the field of cloud computing. A suitable model will be provided to represent the primary features of cloud computing and highlight several of its benefits as well as short comings.

### William Dangerfield

This paper describes the need for care while SCUBA diving into water . It describes and explains the risks involved, and how they avoided. It accompanies a decompression model, an implementation of Buhlmann ZH-L16 model , written in DASM script for the Cadence tool. Its purpose is to educate divers how DCI ('the bends') can form anywhere within the body, and to highlight the risks of Nitrogen Narcosis and Oxygen Toxicity.

### David Deacon

Many dependencies exist within the planets of our solar system, orbits, length of days, temperature and chemical composition to name a few, this paper examines the ability of an Empirical Model to provide a unique learning experience demonstrating how these concepts are related. This paper's theme is modelling with dependency- drawn from Beynon's 2007 paper. Previous research has shown that technology-enhanced learning has had limited uptake and influence, this paper will focus on Empirical Modelling as a technological environment for learning. Initially identifying problems with existing computer based educational programs, and instead proposing that Empirical Modelling construals can be used as a more targeted educational aid. This paper will also identify issues such as methods of learning, before demonstrating how Empirical Modelling can be used to achieve such requirements. The paper elaborates how dependencies within the solar system model can be modelled so that a human interpreter can make connections between the observables within. This paper concludes with the findings from the experimental solar system model with respect to a modeller's learning experience.

### Nguyen Huy Hoang Do

This paper looks at a model of a chess game created in Eden using EM principles. Chess can be a game difficult to understand depending on perceptions. Therefore this exercise provides an insight into the processes behind the creation and manipulation of the chess game in Eden. First EM is introduced briefly and the aims of the projects are stated. Then more details of the implementation with design decisions are looked at. The strengths of EM for this exercise are highlighted and all weaknesses and potential for further work discussed.

### David Evans

Calculators are very procedural tools, but at a component level, when dealing with boolean bits of data, they lend themselves very well to definitive modelling. Here a model calculator – constructed in Cadence – is introduced, which implements both the low-level bit operators and the high-level states associated with using a calculator, but using a definitive static-web architecture instead of a classic CPU-oriented procedural design. Such an architecture has the advantage of having no “clock-speed”, because calculations are performed in a massively parallel style, with no need for a central control or iteration. This project assesses Cadence’s applicability to modelling such systems.

### Gunjan Gogia

This paper considers application of Empirical Modelling principles to a system implementing logic gates in an interactive fashion. This implementation of logic gates is aimed for educational purposes. The user can interactively toggle the input values and the output is modelled as a dependency. Also, this model dynamically creates truth tables.

### D.C. Gregson

The radical shift from traditional programming to modelling can bebconceptually dauting to computer scientists. This paper attempts to practically introduce the concepts of empirical modelling. It explores the principles behind this new perspective of computing. We develop a model of the well known logic game, Minesweeper, in an attempt to demonstrate the advantages of empirical modelling.

### Satyanand Jha

Digital development has given flexibility and speed for information processing, but on the other hand we are formalising nearly everything that we intend to process or compute. While this process of formulising, it seems that we are limiting our ability to observe and losing out our free thought process to rule based thinking, usually pre-defined by people in order to digitalise the system. This motivates the introduction of “Empiricism” to our traditional approach of computing. This paper discusses basic features of Empirical Modelling (EM) and tries to highlight some of its advantages over other traditional programming methodologies.

### Victor Kabukoba

In the following paper, empirical modelling is analysed and the suitability and purpose for applying it within the domain of graphical design is assessed. The background to design and research is reviewed and compared and contrasted to the field of empirical modelling. A model developed using the empirical modelling tool tkEden is introduced and reviewed to demonstrate the tool’s suitability for this task.

### Amandeep Kaur

Viscosity is a physical property of all fluids. It can be defined as the internal friction of a fluid to motion of flow. The proposed paper introduces a model in which Viscosity of a substance is measured by using Empirical Modelling. EM is the study of artefacts which are based on variables, observables and dependencies. It centers on the concept of observation,dependency etc. The proposed paper discusses the viscosity of a liquid using Empirical tools such as tkeden. The model has been made for teaching purposes to show the variation in viscosity of a liquid with variation in the temperature,density,mass etc.

### John Henry Leyva-Camargo

Astronomical models exclusively based on gravity rules currently defines the social understanding of the planetary movement in the Solar System. However, even the simplified construal of a Solar System based on Newton’s laws of motion, reveals that in order to establish the dependencies among observables it is required to define cyclic and complete graphs that deserves discussion from conceptualization and implementation perspective in the definitive notation context.

### Guannan Li

Urban traffic jam has always been a bothersome issue in which traffic signal control plays a critical role. Testing a traffic signal scheduling in a real-world environment is very expensive and also impractical, as well as applying a untested deductive scheduling may cause unnecessary real-world traffic jam. A mathematical approach may accurately calculate a effective scheduling solution, whereas it is complex and abstract. This paper introduces an approach which aims to use potential of Empirical Modelling to simulate a model for network traffic signal and variational traffic condition. The model will help people to experiment different traffic signal scheduling on many traffic conditions in urban traffic settings to seek out an optimal solution for each kind of state. Users observe experiment result in the model directly and intuitively whether these different scheduling reduces average traffic delay and congestion or increase them. Perhaps it will also help people intuitively understand how a non-effective traffic signal scheduling or increased traffic flow produces congestion and traffic delay while observing the process, and how to relief this situation by traffic signal control. It can be also used to simulate traffic base on real-world traffic data, therefore testing and observing efficiency of a particular traffic signal scheduling for real-world issue are provided here. Additionally, many research groups have been working on finding out the optimal traffic signal control solution, such as a multi-agent system for network traffic signal control in which each agent intelligently and dynamically control signal for each intersection through observing ambient conditions and exchanging information with other agent. This model is perfectly capable of constructing a fundamental environment to aid researchers to experiment and observe validity of their research findings before applying them in the real world.

### Tak Cheung Dickson Li

This Figure skating is one of the most popular sport, having practicing and learning figure skating for several years, the author is fascinating in perform some action such as spin and jumps and wanted to perform better each time, in the training the author figured out that the right body movement and position can optimize the successfulness of the performing action in figure skating. During the training by understanding that with actually practices on ice-rink about how some world class skater can perform such a perfect spinning actions, the author would like to produce a simulation of the figure skating to investigate some idea of techniques in simulation environment and use them in practices when on the ice rink. The purpose of this simulation model is to investigate the how influence of physics on figure skating actions can affect the effectiveness of action such as spinning and vertical jump performance. In this model the physic considered are the speed, force, momentum, body mass and friction, i.e. the general equation of involve spinning (momentum proportion to radius against the ice-surface can create speed of rotation).This idea can also be apply in the jumping action, there are many kinds type of jumping, some kind of jumping involve spinning in the air after the launch, such as Axel, which the spinning speed can also be demonstrate in the model and also with the time to landing, that will require calculation gravity and body mass.

### Yin Li

There are numerous of dart tournaments which are famous around the whole world, especially in United Kingdom. This paper discusses the application of Empirical Modelling (EM) in constructing a small simulation of a dart game, focused on the principle, mechanism and rules, especially the players’ motility. Through EM, the dart, as a real-world game, can be created in a quite different way from other forms of software development. EM has its own special features, ways and means on model implementations. Through the model of dart simulation, the paper will illustrated what are the differences of EM, give the reasons why use the EM and show the shortages of EM. At last, some suggestions to improve the EM will be given.

### Si Ma

Sometimes students may find it hard to figure out the subsequent movement of two objects after a collision between them because they can only learn the knowledge from their textbook which is not concrete enough for them to understand. This paper uses Empirical Modelling (EM) approach to develop a model of physical collision between two objects, simulating the collision process, to provide a concrete view of the process to physics students and help them gain a better understanding of collision. As it is for the tutorial, only ideal and non-deformed objects are considered in the model.

### Matthew Maynes

The simplest way to demonstrate physical laws and properties is often a literal physical demonstration. Equally, the best way to understand the workings of physical devices from the past is through constructing physical copies of them that can then be experimented with. However, some objects can potentially be very big, very dangerous, and not suited to a classroom or academic environment. A trebuchet (a type of medieval catapult) would be a good example. Empirical Modelling can provide the solution to these problems by allowing people to create realistic models of physical items that can then be experimented with, thereby allowing students to experiment with, and learn about, physical laws and properties of these items and allowing historians to experiment with the capabilities of objects from the past, all within a safe, cheap and convenient environment. However, there is only merit in creating models to simulate objects if these simulations are actually accurate and realistic. If the model is not an accurate representation of reality then the knowledge and insight gained from it will not be valid and will lead to users developing an inaccurate mental image of the construct they were studying. Additionally there is only merit in using a model if it actually saves you time and involves a viable workload. If the amount of work involved in creating relatively simplistic models is too high then the potential gain will not be judged worth the effort that must be expended by users. Thus this paper will analyse the viability of modelling real world objects with regards to physical accuracy, ease of model use, and the amount of time realistically required.

### Peter Moffatt

Spin is an important aspect of table tennis which has a profound effect on both the trajectory of a table tennis ball and on how the ball bounces off a bat. This paper uses Empirical Modelling to demonstrate how topspin and backspin affect the trajectory of a table tennis ball and how the different types of spin affect the way the ball bounces off a bat.

### Darshana Nair

This paper demonstrates various methods to understand the concept of sorting, to apprehend the complexity of sorting algorithms and to identify the most efficient sorting method based on experimentation and learning from observation. The focus is primarily on the disparity between what is expected and what is observed when given a certain input, thereby formulating a process of trial and error which encourages incremental learning for a user and advocates further development of the model. The principles of empirical modelling are used to simulate sorting of an array using insertion sort and selection sort, and using a set of methods a comparison is done of the computational complexities which varies depending on the input array.

### Cem Ozturan

This project is about creating a cannonball simulation using Empirical Modelling tools, where the user simply tries to hit a target shown on the screen by firing. The project mainly focuses on the physical movement of the ball taking all the defined dependencies into consideration, and it has been developed using tkeden 1.67 by considering the Empirical Modelling concepts.

### Samuel Priestley

In education there has been a marked emphasis shift from problem solving via teaching through audio and visual methods to teaching through problem solving, or constructionist learning. In this paper we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using Empirical Modelling as a tool to promote this form of learning and compare it to traditional IT solutions. As the core of this investigation the Towers of Hanoi was modelled using the Empirical Modelling environment EDEN. The basic puzzle was first implemented and then, exploiting the open-ended qualities inherent in Empirical Modelling, the model was extended. Although EM techniques are discovered to be useful with a large potential, the current implementations are not stable and functional enough for wider use.

### James Ribi

This project aims to build an Empirical model of the game of Mastermind and to visualise the set of inferences that can be made from the results of the player's guesses. In doing this, we can explore all possible inferences that can be made about the state of the game at every move. From the perspective of the end user, this helps to improve their playing strategy through experimentation and experience. The prominent use of dependencies within the model highlights the power behind Empirical Modelling. If the user of the model adopts the role of a modeller, observables can be changed at will thereby providing an insight into how the model works, which helps the modeller gain a better understand the dynamics of the game of Mastermind in addition to the logical thought process that is required in order to break the code.

### Rathin Sawney

This paper presents to the reader an in-depth analysis of current EM research. Evidence for the use of this research in education is presented and ideas discussed. Consideration has been given to other emerging technologies and research in the field of education. A model of a practical classroom demonstration is presented and discussed. This led onto the topics of further practical work in EM involving development and deployment before making concluding statements.

### Matthew Seeley

In this paper, we discuss the formulation of a model using Empirical Modelling methods to demonstrate how two players on the same team in a game of Badminton should move with respect to each other. We discuss first the need for such a tool to aid in learning these principles, second the requirements of a student who is trying to absorb new principles, and thirdly the benefits of an Empirical Modelling approach to building the desired learning aid. Important aspects of the model are briefly discussed.

### Seb Sidbury

Throughout history, humans have always been faced with the challenge of understanding new artefacts and phenomena, whether out of necessity or interest. A picture paints a thousand words, but surely in our day and age, we can do better than a picture – in this paper, we explain why the principles of Empirical Modelling are extremely valuable to the process of understanding new artefacts. We illustrate our discussion through the use of a model of an automobile’s internal combustion engine and transmission. Finally, we describe certain limitations encountered during our modelling activity, and speculate about the bright-looking future of the discipline.

### David Smith

This paper investigates the use of Empirical Modelling to represent a Retail Queuing System Environment. The paper is devised as follows. Firstly, the problem of queuing systems is introduced, soon followed by an explanation of the model. We then proceed to discuss the topics of constructivism and dependencies, two important features of Empirical Modelling. With these fundamentals in place, tkeden is compared to two commercial modelling tools, SIMUL8 and SimPY. We conclude with an overview of the benefits and drawbacks of Empirical Modelling, which brings the paper to a close.

### Rakesh Sojitra

This paper will discuss the scenario of a zebra crossing where the traffic stops for a person standing at the edge of the road to let him cross the road and then move on. It will also discuss how a single road having a bus stop can create traffic problem. The study of the model will investigate the dependencies of various agents, which are a car, a bus, a passenger waiting at the bus stop and a person waiting at the zebra crossing to cross the road. A critique of how EM application approach has advantages over the other modelling tools is also discussed.

### Yasser Sultan

This paper discusses the use of Empirical Modelling to demonstrate the computation of shortest path in a packet switching computer network. The shortest path between two stations depends on the congestion of the transmission links and the path with the minimum congestion is selected for the transmission of data. The model can be used by students of a networking module as they can change value of observables and see the effect of it in the model.

### Chiu Hung Sze

This paper looks at a scenario which involves route planning and optimization problem. Travelling Salesperson Problem (TSP) is the model to be discussed. It aims at piloting the usage of dynamic programming (DP) in Empirical Modelling (EM) in terms of the deep dependency of its nature. The investigation will align with pure definitive notation to maintain a clean structure of the model and to avoid side effect of other approaches, though different programming approaches are embraced by EM. The subject investigated remains a pilot purpose because of the novel environment.

### Hang Tian

At the beginning of this paper, the definition and basic features of Empirical Modelling will be introduced along with the real world, and then discuss the actions and function of Lift Simulation in Empirical Modelling specifically. After that, talking something about the fair evaluation of this model, which consists of two sub-parts that the overall evaluation of the Lift model and the possible further expansion of the Lift. In section 4, the comparison between Empirical Modelling and conventional programming languages is given. What in the last part of this paper is the conclusion.

### Zukhra Uzbayeva

This paper considers issues of Empirical Modelling, which is the research field developed in the University of Warwick, and mathematical learning. There are discussed works of Beynon about Radical Empiricism and Empirical Modelling, also about Empirical Modelling for Educational Tecnologies; James's work about Radical Empiricism and, Tall's work about issues of mathematical learning of derivative.

### Guangfu Wang

Horizontal-projectile motion is one of the most traditional branches of the classical mechanics, which will be usually taught in secondary school. However, horizontal-projectile motion is difficult to understand because, it is concerning to some of the other physical factors, such as vector, speed, displacement and etc. Educational game, a new area in computer programming, can simplify the difficult problem into an educational visual game, so that the problem can be learnt while playing. The model of paper plane is an educational game which using empirical modelling to performance horizontal-projectile motion. The game will involve most of the factors which may influence the motion track. This paper will introduce the educational game of paper plane and explores the inves-tigation how empirical modelling will be adopted in the educational game.

### Weixi Xia

This paper primarily deals with the potential of using Empirical Modelling (EM) as a simulation tool to teaching people learn how to serve spinning ball and hit spinning ball in Table tennis(Ping Pong). The first part introduced background with EM between Table tennis. The details of model such as study, building, and concepts were presented in the paragraphs. In the final, the advantages and disadvantages of EM model were described in evaluation and conclusion.

### Xuezhou Yang

This paper will present an approach to the visualization of quantitative dependencies based on an examination of many factors that determine the distances between different buildings in real world urban construction situations. Also, this paper will discuss the advantages of this approach and talk about the application of Empirical Modeling.

### Kaifei Yu

In this paper we explore the implementation of a Snake Game within Eden. We implement the classic game of Snake within Eden and examine some simple AI for the game. As well as this we allow the user to also control the Snake.