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Major Group 2: Professionals


21  Physical, mathematical and engineering science professionals
    211 Physicists, chemists and related professionals
        2111    Physicists and astronomers
        2112    Meteorologists
        2113    Chemists
        2114    Geologists and geophysicists

    212 Mathematicians, statisticians and related professionals
        2121    Mathematicians and related professionals
        2122    Statisticians1

    213 Computing professionals2
        2131    Computer systems designers, analysts and programmers
        2139    Computing professionals not elsewhere classified

    214 Architects, engineers and related professionals
        2141    Architects, town and traffic planners
        2142    Civil engineers
        2143    Electrical engineers
        2144    Electronics and telecommunications engineers
        2145    Mechanical engineers
        2146    Chemical engineers
        2147    Mining engineers, metallurgists and related professionals
        2148    Cartographers and surveyors
        2149    Architects, engineers and related professionals not 
                elsewhere classified

Definitional notes:

This sub-major group includes occupations whose main tasks require a high level of professional knowledge and experience in the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences (ILO, 1990; p.47).

1. This category should include public service officials who state that their main professional activity is associated with statistical information processing and analysis or the direct supervision of others involved in such tasks.

2. If the job title does not permit a clear distinction, additional information on level of relevant qualifications, or description of tasks may be used to allocate occupations to either minor group 213 or minor group 312 (Computer associate professionals).


22  Life science and health professionals
    221 Life science professionals
        2211    Biologists, botanists, zoologists and related professionals 
        2212    Pharmacologists, pathologists and related professionals
        2213    Agronomists and related professionals

    222 Health professionals (except nursing)
        2221    Medical doctors
        2222    Dentists
        2223    Veterinarians
        2224    Pharmacists
        2229    Health professionals (except nursing) not elsewhere classified

    223 Nursing and midwifery professionals
        2230    Nursing and midwifery professionals 

Definitional notes:

Life science and health professionals conduct research, improve or develop concepts, theories and operational methods, or apply scientific knowledge relating to fields such as biology, zoology, botany, ecology, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, agronomy and medicine (ILO, 1990; p.59).

No explicit changes are proposed for this sub-major group. However, it should be noted that strict application of the principle that this sub-major group be restricted to ISCO skill level 4 (education commensurate with a university degree or equivalent) may require reference to information on qualification. This is particularly the case with minor group 223 (Nursing and Midwifery professionals), where particular nursing specialisms may require such high level qualifications.


23  Teaching professionals
    231 College, university and higher education teaching professionals
        2310    College, university and higher education teaching professionals

    232 Secondary education teaching professionals
        2320    Secondary education teaching professionals

    233 Primary and pre-primary education teaching professionals
        2331    Primary education teaching professionals
        2332    Pre-primary education teaching professionals

    234 Special education teaching professionals
        2340    Special education teaching professionals

    235 Other teaching professionals
        2351    Education methods specialists
        2352    School inspectors
        2359    Other teaching professionals not elsewhere classified


Definitional notes:

Teaching professionals teach the theory and practice of one or more disciplines at different educational levels, conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories and operational methods pertaining to their particular discipline, and prepare scholarly papers and books (ILO 1990; p.65).

Allocation of occupations to minor groups 233 (Primary and pre-primary education teaching professionals) and 234 (Special education teaching professionals) as opposed to minor groups 331 (Primary education teaching associate professionals), 332 (Pre-primary education teaching associate professionals) and 333 (Special education teaching associate professionals) is usually performed for the entire group rather than for any part of it (ie. primary teachers are allocated either to 233 or 331, depending upon national education and training requirements). Harmonisation of national education and training requirements will eventually remove such differences. Meanwhile, it is proposed that countries indicate clearly the basis for their allocation of primary, pre-primary or special education teaching occupations to minor groups 233/234 or 331/332/333.

Headteachers are classified to unit group 1229.


24  Other professionals
    241 Business professionals
        2411    Accountants
        2412    Personnel and careers professionals
        2419    Business professionals not elsewhere classified

    242 Legal professionals
        2421    Lawyers
        2422    Judges
        2429    Legal professionals not elswhere classified

    243 Archivists, librarians and related information professionals
        2431    Archivists and curators
        2432    Librarians and related information professionals

    244 Social science and related professionals
        2441    Economists1
        2442    Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals
        2443    Philosophers, historians and political scientists
        2444    Philologists, translators and interpreters
        2445    Psychologists
        2446    Social work professionals

    245 Writers and creative or performing artists2
        2451    Authors, journalists and other writers
        2452    Sculptors, painters and related artists
        2453    Composers, musicians and singers
        2454    Choreographers and dancers
        2455    Film, stage and related actors and directors

    246 Religious professionals
        2460    Religious professionals

    247 Public service administrative professionals3
        2470    Public service administrative professionals


Definitional notes:

Other professionals conduct research, improve or develop concepts, theories and operational methods, or apply knowledge relating to information dissemination and organisation of business, as well as to philosophy, law, psychology, politics, economics, history, religion, languages, sociology, other social sciences, arts and entertainment (ILO, 1990; p.72).

Depending upon the specific tasks and degree of responsibility, as well as on the national educational and training requirements, it may be appropriate to classify some of the occupations identified here into sub-major group 34 (Other associate professionals) (ILO, 1990; p.72).

1. This category should include public service officials who state that their main professional activity is associated with economic analysis or the supervision of others involved in such tasks.

2. This category is intended to include persons who require skills at the fourth ISCO skill level (university education or equivalent). Countries should indicate clearly the basis of their allocation of occupations to this minor group as opposed to minor group 347 (Artistic, entertainment and sports associate professionals).

3. This is a new minor group, designed explicitly for the classification of occupations in which the primary tasks consist of general administrative functions within the public service and for which national education and training requirements stipulate a university education or equivalent. Occupations classified to this category exclude the most senior general administrative grades within the public service (classified to minor group 111 Legislators and senior government officials).

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