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Tannis Goddard

Tannis Goddard graduated with her PhD in Employment Research in July 2021. Details of her thesis:  Online Career Learning: Intregating ICT for Service Transformation can be viewed on the Warwick Research Archive Portal when available.

Tannis is the CEO of MixtMode. She leads a team in the development of modern career and social service learning solutions. She specialises is crafting and implementing learning solutions that require a creative blend of tools and processes to meet stakeholders’ needs.


  • Amundson, N., Goddard, T., Yoon, H., & Niles, S. (2018). Hope centred career interventions with unemployed clients, Canadian Journal of Career Development, 17(2), 87-98.
  • Bimrose, J., Kettunen, J., & Goddard, T. (2015). ICT – the new frontier? Pushing the boundaries of career practice. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 43(1), 1-14.
  • Goddard, T., Kettunen, J., Sampson, J., Schmidt, J., & Vuorinen, R. (2014). In J. Bimrose (Chair), Integration of ICT within Career Development & Guidance Practice. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG), Quebec City, Canada.
  • Goddard, T. (2010). Online Career Counselling: Developing a pedagogy for e-career learning. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Association of Educational and Vocational Guidance, Bangalore, India.

PhD Abstract

Online Career Learning: Integrating ICT for Service Transformation

Reflecting the historical, social and economic shift away from bureaucratic, hierarchical organisational structures, careers have more recently been described as “the evolving sequence of a person’s work experiences over time” (Arthur, Hall, & Lawrence, 1989, p.8). While the definition may evoke a linear sequence, career theory has developed to account for the “evolving sequence” of one’s career changes across social and economic spaces and impacted by the decisions and actions an individual takes as they respond to the external environment where they live their lives. As the understanding of careers has evolved, so too has the way in which career practitioners engage with individuals to support their career development needs.

This doctoral study aimed to increase understanding of technology-enabled career practice. Specifically, the research goal was to explore how clients and practitioners engage in an online career intervention utilising multiple modes of communication and engagement. Through the participation in a purpose-built online career intervention in Canada, the primary aim of the study was to understand how the design and delivery was experienced by the study participants (the clients) and their practitioners. Building from a constructivist perspective, the study sought to understand how the intervention “encourages individuals to actively reflect on, revise and reorient their life-career relationship” (McMahon & Patton, 2006, p.7).

Through a qualitative approach, utilising the Grounded Theory Method, the study queried numerous data sets to uncover the impact of design and practice factors within the online intervention. From the data an emerging theoretical model was developed, referred to as the Relational Intra-action Model of Online Career Learning. The relationship between the client participant and practitioner was found to be central to the experience of the intervention. A strong working alliance was formed online which was a central quality of the relationship, just as it is in face-to-face practice.

The key finding of this study is the inextricable link between design and practice. Specific design factors were identified as the foundation upon which the practice engagement occurred. Working at a distance from each other required that new structures and pathways were created to allow meaningful engagement to occur. No longer was any of the practitioner’s time spent conveying content; all of their time was spent engaging with their clients in a co-constructive process, supporting their meaning-making and application. It appears that the mixing of the content, activities and interactions is what enabled the intervention to provide a deep and rich experience to unfold. This suggests that transitioning to online career practice requires far more that endeavouring to replicate existing practices through technology; it suggests that we need to bring new approaches and practices to a new space (Magnusson, 2015).